TROTSKY Leo( Russia a professional revolutionary, writer, theorist of socialism, the military commander.)
Comments for TROTSKY Leo
Biography TROTSKY Leo
Lev Davidovich Bronstein was born on October 26, 1879 at Yanovka Ukraine. First became acquainted with socialist ideas in 1896, when he visited last grade of secondary school in Nikolayev. Interest in Marxism Bronstein awakened Alexandra Sokolovskaya, which became his first wife. For creation of 'Yuzhnorossiysky Workers' Union' wife were arrested in 1898 and sentenced to four years in Irkutsk.
In Irkutsk, he and Alexander were among a group of Marxists, which formed around the newspaper 'Spark'. In September 1902 Trotsky escaped from exile in October, arrived in London and immediately made contact with Lenin.
Lev Davidovich used for escape from Siberia fake documents in the name of Trotsky, and which became known through his articles in the 'Spark' and public lectures. In 1903, at the 2 nd Congress RSDLP in London, he broke with Lenin and sided with the Mensheviks. Trotsky did not agree with 'Jacobinism' of Lenin and his concept of the authoritarian organization of the Party. After 'Bloody Sunday' Jan. 9, 1905, followed by a revolutionary upsurge, he returned home and participated in the activities of the first Councils in the Saint Petersburg.
Trotsky played a leading role in the revolution of 1905, led the October general strike and later, to the uprising, in December, was arrested. In prison he wrote a book Results and Prospects - pamphlet analyzing the 1905 revolution in terms of the theory of 'permanent revolution'. According to this theory, . world socialist revolution could begin in a backward country, . like Russia, . but the revolutionary movement here succeed, . be taken if the 'socialist' measures (such, . as the nationalization of banks and heavy industry), . solved 'democratic' tasks (eg, . partition of land among the peasants or to establish a new representative body - the constituent assembly),
. At the trial, he turned his defense in the prosecution tsarist. Subsequently, escaped from.
In October 1907 Trotsky, his second wife and son settled in Vienna. Trotsky wrote a lot for the German and Austrian socialist press. In 1908 he began publishing in Vienna Russian-language newspaper Pravda, which is widely distributed in Russia, primarily in St. Petersburg, volunteer labor.
In 1914, Trotsky published a pamphlet war in Switzerland and the International, which denounced the 'capitulation' of European social-democratic leaders and called for the formation of the socialist United States of Europe. After moving to Paris, he wrote articles about military operations for the Kiev press, and published a daily newspaper 'Our word'. In 1915 he took part in the Zimmerwald conference - the embryo of the future 3rd International - and became the chief author of its manifesto. In 1916 he was deported from France to Spain, where he imprisoned and another expulsion. January 13, 1917, Trotsky and his family arrived in New York, where he has actively supported the left wing of the Socialist Party USA, and together with NI Bukharin produced Russian-language newspaper 'New World', in which it welcomed the February Revolution of 1917. On the way home was abducted by the British secret service and interned; released only after the Petrograd Soviet forced the Provisional Government began to demand his release.
At the end of May 1917, Trotsky arrived in Petrograd and joined the inter-district of the United Social Democrats (Interdistrictites), but the ideological and political advantage was on the side of the Bolsheviks. Trotsky himself, too, soon became one of the Bolshevik leaders and gained wide popularity as a speaker. Imprisoned after the July riots in Petrograd, he was released after the defeat of the Kornilov revolt, and then elected chairman of the Petrograd. Being in this key position, played a crucial role in the October revolution. It was he who suggested the idea to name the new Soviet government by the Council of People's Commissars. He himself became the People's Commissar (Commissar) of Foreign Affairs.
In December 1917 Trotsky led the Soviet delegation at the talks in Brest-Litovsk. He prolonged the negotiations, we look forward to a revolution in Central Europe, and over the heads of the negotiating parties to make appeals for an uprising to 'workers in uniform' Germany and Austria. When the Germans decided to dictate the strict conditions of peace, Trotsky opposed Lenin, advocated peace at any price, but not supported and Bukharin, who called for 'revolutionary war'. Instead, he put forward the slogan of 'neither war nor peace', ie. called for an end to the war, but offered not to conclude a peace treaty with.
In March 1918, Trotsky took the post of Commissioner of the military and took an active part in creating the Red Army and the Civil War 1918-1921. In late 1920, Lenin instructed him to lead the work to restore the complete destruction of Russia's Transport System. Trotsky proposed the introduction of all railways strict discipline like the military. Militarization touched and trade union of railwaymen and transport workers. Winter 1920-1921 'the trade union question' was the subject of heated debate, against the installations made by Lenin, Trotsky, supported by Zinoviev and Stalin.
In 1922, Lenin was seeking an alliance with Trotsky against the danger of bureaucratization of the Party, whose Secretary-General was elected Stalin. Trotsky agreed with Lenin's proposal, . but met with opposition from 'troika' - Stalin, . Zinoviev and Kamenev, and in response to a request from Lenin to assume formal duties of his personal representative put forward the argument, . that his rise could cause anti-Semitic attacks on the Soviet regime,
. Convinced, . that the Russian revolution would succeed, . only if it was joined by the industrialized countries of Western Europe, . Trotsky worked in close collaboration with the Communist Party of Germany for the preparation of the uprising, . which is intended to support the full might of the Red Army,
. In October 1923 'troika' to use its supervisory role in the International and at the last moment made for the abolition of the uprising. The failure of the plan 'of the German October' has led to a crisis in the CPSU (b).
In an atmosphere of economic difficulties and social tensions were deployed to the debate about democracy within. During her recovery vigorously advocated by Trotsky and the so-called 'Old Bolsheviks', signed a special manifesto. In response to this 'troika' denounced Trotsky and the 'Moscow's opposition to' for 'factionalism'. 13th Party Conference, which concluded the debate was preceded by a series of falsifications of the results of party elections and bureaucratic manipulation. Speaking as a fully organized faction, the machine - despite the fact that he represented only a minority of party members - in fact, did not allow participation in the conference of the opposition, which has been condemned for 'Menshevik deviation'.
When 21 January 1924 Lenin died, Trotsky was not in Moscow. Delaying his return to attend the funeral of a false telegram, . Stalin used the funeral to nominate himself as the heir of Lenin and adopted its leadership position, . proclaiming 'Lenin Testament' for an urgent admission to the party 100 thousand new members, . which could become an obedient tool of the apparatus,
. Trotsky did not authorize the proposal of his supporters in the Red Army coup and oust Stalin and Zinoviev, but shortly after he was dismissed from his post as military commissar.
In 1925, Stalin and the party apparatus, supported by Bukharin and 'right' in the party, were against Zinoviev and Kamenev ally. After this, he crushed the 'New Opposition', and Zinoviev declared his secret struggle against Trotsky. Then in 1926, Trotsky hurried his allies to unite with former enemies, to form 'united opposition'.
The credibility of the opposition gave a few thousand 'old Bolsheviks' - veterans of the underground struggle, revolution and civil war. It consisted of a large number of the most prominent theorists and political leaders of the Party. Signed by 13 members of the Central Committee in April 1926, . The Declaration included a program, . emphasizing the need to restore democracy and to develop policies to improve the living conditions of the working class and accelerated industrialization,
. It called for the release party of the Comintern from the paralyzing influence of Stalin's doctrine of 'socialism in one country', which turned them into 'border guards' siege of the Soviet regime.
The spring of 1927 the opposition came to life after the failure of Stalin's policy toward China (despite warnings by Trotsky and Zinoviev, Stalin forced the Chinese communists to subordinate themselves fully Chiang Kai-Shek).
However, Stalin made a scandal in connection with breaking into the ranks of the opposition of former White Guard officer (in case the agent of the GPU). Trotsky was able to organize street demonstrations and large public rally at Moscow University, and even print and distribute the Platform of the opposition, but on Oct. 23, 1927, Stalin called on to exclude him from the party. Despite the sympathy of students and workers to Trotsky, police thwarted an attempt by the repression of the opposition on Nov. 7, 1927 to organize mass demonstrations in honor of the 10 th anniversary of the revolution. In December, Trotsky was the last time in public spoke at the funeral of his friend AA Joffe, who, being terminally ill, committed suicide in protest against Stalinism. In January 1928, Trotsky had been forcibly deported to Alma-Ata. Trotsky and other opposition figures managed to turn the summer of 1928 with a letter to the Congress of the Comintern. February 12, 1929 he was again deported, this time in Turkey.
In Turkey, Trotsky published two large labor - autobiography My Life and three-volume History of the Russian Revolution. But his main task in those years was the mobilization of the left forces in Germany against the rising tide of Nazi danger. Calls Trotsky for unity in the struggle against the Nazis rejected as Stalinists, and the leaders of the Social-Democratic, who saw enemies, especially in each other. The victory of Hitler in February 1933 was immediately regarded Trotsky as the biggest defeat of the international labor movement. He concluded that the Comintern was incapacitated due to openly counter-revolutionary policy of Stalin and called for the formation of 4-th International.
In July 1933 the new French government headed by Edouard Daladier gave Trotsky a secret refuge in France. But in February 1934 his whereabouts were discovered by the Nazis, and intense pressure from Germany led to his deportation from France. However, only a year later the French managed to find a country willing to accept exile. In 1935 the new Labor government of Norway has provided asylum to Trotsky. In Norway, he wrote his most significant work - The Revolution Betrayed.
In August 1936 in Moscow, opened the first of the security forces staged show trials in which Stalin, Trotsky slandered as an agent of Hitler. Yielding to pressure, the Norwegian Minister of Justice, Trygve Lie of Trotsky and interned said about the undesirability of its presence in the country. In December 1936 President L. Cardenas gave him refuge in Mexico, where he arrived on Jan. 9, 1937, settling in Koyoakane as a guest of Diego Rivera.
In April 1937 here worked International Joint Commission to Investigate the Moscow trials, led by Dzh.Dyui. Evidence Trotsky contained a complete exposition of his revolutionary ideas and a description of his revolutionary career, and also refuted the slander about the collaboration with the Nazis. Dewey, the Commission published a summary of those hearings, called the Case of Leon Trotsky, and in 1938 issued an opinion on this matter under the name Innocent!
. In February 1938, Trotsky, Andre Breton and Diego Rivera issued a manifesto to a free revolutionary art, 'slogan:' The independence of art for the revolution
. The revolution - for the complete liberation of art! ". At this time the agents of Stalin was assassinated in Paris Leon Sedov - son of Trotsky and his assistant. Trotsky did not abandon attempts to create a 4-th International, the manifesto of which (named Trotsky agony of capitalism and the tasks of the Fourth International) became known as a program of transitional demands. Trotsky was mortally wounded by the NKVD agent Ramon Mercader, and died in Koyoakane August 21, 1940.