Jurgen Habermas (Habermas Jrgen)( The German philosopher, the greatest representative of the Frankfurt School.)
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Biography Jurgen Habermas (Habermas Jrgen)
Born in Dц╪sseldorf, 18 June 1929. He studied philosophy, history and psychology at the University of Goettingen, Zurich and Bonn. In 1954 he defended under the direction of E. Rothakera doctoral dissertation on the philosophy of Schelling. From 1956 to 1959 - Lecturer at the Institute for Social Research in Frankfurt, headed by M. Horkheimer, and in 1980-1983 - director of the Institute. From 1964 to 1971 (and 1983) - Professor of Philosophy and Sociology of the University of Frankfurt. From 1971 to 1980 - Director of the Max Planck Institute (in Starnberg).
In the center of Habermas's philosophical thought - the notion of communicative reason. The first step in the development of this concept was the book Knowledge and interest (Erkenntnis und Interesse, 1968). In this work Habermas looks for a model of critical dialogue, through which hopes to re-evaluate the claims of transcendental philosophy, linking the latter with the tools of social sciences. 'Consciousness', serving traditional European ontology as the supreme judge, now deprived of his prerogatives, and his place is a universal communicative community. This communication does not itself act as the supreme and final authority, because its results are dependent on social conditions and they can affect the impact of relations of domination and subordination. Therefore, criticism must re-examine the society in order to distinguish the free communication of communication, under the influence of relations of domination - subordination. In this context, serve as models for Habermas, Marx and Freud, who contributed a crucial step in the critical update the concept of reason. The new concept of reason is crucial (but due to the criticism of society, . not just with 'critical mind', . as in Kant) and has a universal character (as a rule of procedures, , . rather than the actual act of clearly universal 'I think', . like Descartes or Kant),
. Beginning in 1971 (namely, with the release of a small Preliminary thoughts on the theory of communicative competence, . Vorbereitende Bemerkungen zu einer Theorie der kommunikativen Kompetenz) Habermas seeks to link the notion of communicative reason and the 'linguistic turn', . committed by the Anglo-American analytic philosophy,
. Turning to the relevant research KV-O.Apelya (and in close collaboration with him), Habermas comes to developing the notion of mind, based on the theory of linguistic acts. This theory is thoroughly described in the two-volume work The theory of communicative action (Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns, 1981).
Peculiarity of philosophical theory of Habermas is that he linked the concept of mind with the empirical theory of social evolution, developed by Marx, Weber and Parsons. He rejected the philosophical Apriorism and focuses on the development postmetafizicheskogo 'philosophical project'. This means that the philosophical concept of reason is not independent of empirical observations, and must constantly reaffirm themselves in a dialogue with the specific scientific disciplines, reflects the functional differentiation of society. Dialogue with the philosophy of particular sciences Habermas illustrates the example of psychoanalysis (Cognition and interest), . then the example of the theory of social evolution (A reconstruction of historical materialism, . Zur Rekonstruktion des historischen Materialismus, . 1976), . then the example theory of society (The theory of communicative action), . then the example of the theory of law (real and significance, . Faktizitt und Geltung, . 1992),
. Theory of knowledge is possible only as a theory of society - a thought that runs through all the work Habermas. In contrast to Marx, Habermas clearly distinguishes between the philosophy of history and theory of social evolution (converging at this point with Piaget, T. Parsons and N. Luhmann).
The main motive of the critical theories of his teachers, Horkheimer and Adorno, Habermas from the outset sought to supplement the theory of democracy. With this addition, the Frankfurt School was taken out of the impasse of negativism and received a powerful impetus for further development. Think about structural transformation experienced by the society, Habermas in the early 1960's advanced the concept that at the end of the decade has become the key to a whole generation of revolutionary students. This concept - public, social (ffentlichkeit). Another important topic habermasovskih research forms the relationship of law and democracy. This topic is discussed Habermas in his book, factuality and value. where developed in previous works communicative concept of reason is applied to the classical theory of sovereignty. The core of his proposed theory of law is a polemic with the rising and K. Schmitt (1888-1985) division will and reason (voluntas and ratio). According to Habermas, the formation of national sovereignty should be understood as a rational process, which includes the formulation of public will, which is outside this rational procedure would be anarchic nature.
The language and concepts of Habermas had a marked influence on modern thought. Put forward by him in the 1960's notion of emancipation, . epistemological interest, . Communications, . Discourse in the 1970's were developed in the concept of 'legitimacy crisis of late capitalism', . and in the 1980's supplemented by the terms and aphorisms, . obtaining the distribution of the language not only scientists, . but the general public ( 'the colonization of life world', . 'new opacity', etc.),
The controversy with Habermas' historical revisionism 'conservative German historians gave impetus to the debate, which extended far beyond the academic' historians' dispute '. Productive perception of Habermas's ideas significantly in many countries, especially in the U.S., where its influence on the young radical intellectuals, almost stronger than in Germany.