George Ellery Hale (Hale George Ellery)( The American astronomer.)
Comments for George Ellery Hale (Hale George Ellery)
Biography George Ellery Hale (Hale George Ellery)
Born June 29, 1868 in Chicago. Conduct research in the Harvard College Observatory. In 1888-1891 observations carried out in our own small Kenvudskoy Observatory. In 1892-1905 he worked at the University of Chicago (since 1897 - professor, in 1895-1905 - the first director of Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, near Chicago). In 1904, Hale organized the Mount Wilson Observatory (pc. California) of the Carnegie Institution in Washington and before the end of 1923 was its director (from 1923 - Honorary Director).
Hale works devoted to solar physics and stellar. In 1889, Hale invented spectroheliograph - a device that allows pictures of the chromosphere of the Sun. In 1892, the first time using this device to obtain photographs of prominence and calcium flocculi. Investigated the past at various levels of the solar atmosphere to study the circulation processes. Suggested the presence of strong magnetic fields in sunspots, and then proved their existence by means of experiments on the Zeeman splitting of spectral lines (1908). He performed the first experiments related to the discovery of the general magnetic field of the Sun.
Of great importance was the organizational work of Hale. Scientist not only participated in the creation of Yerkes Observatory and Mount Wilson Observatory, but found the means to create the largest telescopes. In 1897 completed the creation of the world's largest 40-inch refractor at Yerkes Observatory, in 1908, was installed 60-inch, and in 1917 - 100-inch reflector at Mount Wilson. In 1928, Hale began to actively pursue the idea of a 200-inch telescope at Mount Palomar Observatory near Mount Wilson. Work was completed in 1948, he was named to the Hale telescope.
Hale participated in the creation of the California University of Technology, has become one of the largest research centers in the U.S., participated in the organization of the Library and Art Gallery G. Huntington in San Marino (pc. California). He was one of the organizers of the International Union for cooperation in investigations of the Sun (1904), on the basis of which formed the International Astronomical Union (1919). He was one of the editors 'Astronomical Bulletin' ( 'Bulletin Astronomique', . 1892-1895), . later transformed into the magazine 'Astronomy and Astrophysics' ( 'Astronomy and Astrophysics'); founder and editor of 'Astrophysical Journal' ( 'Astrophysical Journal', . 1895-1935),
. Among the books written by scientists - Study of stellar evolution (The Study of Stellar Evolution, . 1908); Ten years of mountain observatory (Ten Years' Work of a Mountain Observatory, . 1915); New Heaven (The New Heavens, . 1922); Depths of the Universe (The Depths of the Universe, . 1924) and others,
. For his work in astronomy and optics, as well as for his organizational activities Hale has been awarded many prizes, medals and honorary titles of the Academy of Sciences of the United States, Britain, France, Belgium, Holland and Italy.
Hale died in Pasadena (pc. California) February 21, 1938.