Robert Walpole (Walpole Robert)( 1-Earl of Orford (Orford), the leader of the English Whigs, who was widely regarded as the first ever Prime Minister of Britain.)
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Biography Robert Walpole (Walpole Robert)
Coming from an ancient Norfolk family, Walpole was the youngest son of Colonel Robert Walpole, a former member of Parliament from the district of Castle-writhing. He was born in Houghton Hall (Norfolk) 26 August 1676. In 1690 the young Robert was elected a royal scholarship to Eton, in 1696 he moved to King's College in Cambridge, but left an academic career 19 May 1698, when he died his elder brother. July 30, 1700 Robert married Catherine Shorter.
After November 18, 1700 death of his father, Robert took possession of estates Walpole, and received a seat in parliament Castle writhing, where he was elected January 11, 1701. In 1702, Walpole was a member of parliament from the port of Norfolk King's Lynn, which has long been influenced by the family of Walpole, and their immediate neighbors, Townsend of Reynema.
In the House of Commons Walpole quickly attracted the spotlight. His words were clearly and convincingly, he is in full possession of those objects of which said, no matter how complex and specialized it may be. In 1704 he already regarded as one of the leaders of the young Whig and very promising policy. He became a member of the famous Kit-Kat Club, where the most influential Whig leaders came together with brilliant writers, representatives of a so-called. Augustow century - Joseph Addison, Richard Steele, William and John Kongrivom Vanbrugom. In June 1705 Walpole was appointed as a board member of the Danish Prince George, husband of Queen Anne. The council was in charge of management and organization of the British Navy. Soon after his outstanding administrative abilities Walpole had seen the Duke of Marlborough. In 1708 Walpole was the minister of war and performed his duties in this position for two years.
In the summer of 1710 Queen Anne fell under the influence of mesh Abigail (Hill) and Robert Garleya and soon found sympathy for the Tories. The country was tired of the War of Spanish Succession, in which Britain and its allies since 1701 opposed the French and tired of the Whigs, who wanted to continue the war. At the 1710 general election the Tories won the majority. Many leaders of the Whigs lost their posts, but Walpole, who had already moved to the Office of Naval Treasury, was delayed for several months. But on Jan. 1, 1711 and fired him. Immediately thereafter, he became the object of Marlborough and burning hatred for the Tories. In January 1712 Walpole was brought to the House of Commons for corruption while serving as minister of war, he was found guilty and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Walpole returned to Parliament in 1713. With accession to the throne of George I in 1714 the Whigs again firmly entrenched in the government, and Walpole became the general treasurer, received the position, which was associated with a significant influence. In 1715 he was appointed finance minister and first lord of the Treasury, Townsend became the Secretary of State. Two years later, they came into conflict with his colleagues, James Stanopom and Charles Spencer (3 rd Earl of Sunderland), resulting in Townshend and Walpole were forced to withdraw from the government. Around that time, Prince of Wales, quarreled with his father, George. The opposition, including Walpole, began to assemble in his palace. Walpole again entered the ministry in 1720 and soon reconciled the King with the Prince.
Worth Walpole again become the general treasurer, as the office was implicated in a scandal over a so-called. Scams South Sea Company. King, his German mistress and leading members of government have been implicated in the scandal. Walpole, contrary to popular belief, was unable to solve a tricky concept crooks and put himself in the South Sea Company is very heavily. But he was not directly connected with the organizers of the fraud and therefore assumed the main burden of protecting the Government in the House of Commons. Walpole again became finance minister and first lord of the Treasury, as well as the leader of the House of Commons. All these positions he retained until 1742.
During these years Walpole has been accomplished. As in the House of Commons and the House of Lords, he has steadily created a cohesive cohort of supporters loyal to the dynasty Hanover. He managed to put a definitive end to any possibility as the Tories came to power, and the return of the deposed Stuarts to the English throne. All his administrative ability, he used to rebuild the outdated financial system. With his active support of the taxes were reduced, began to develop trade. In foreign policy, Walpole completed a long conflict with Spain.
Walpole demanded loyalty from his colleagues and could not stand criticism. Therefore, many capable politicians were unable to maintain their positions. Even son Walpole Townsend in 1730 was forced to resign because of disagreements with Walpole in matters of foreign policy. Thus arose the opposition Walpole grouping of bright and clever politicians, headed by the William Palteni, Viscount Bolingbroke and William Wind, concentrating all its efforts on how to overthrow Walpole. They mercilessly criticized the leader of the Whigs in the press and in Parliament and succeeded in 1733, . which forced him to abandon the bill on the introduction of excise duty on wine and tobacco, . which was designed to curb smuggling and customs of abuse (the bill was extremely unpopular among the London merchants),
. With the support of George II, who ascended the throne in 1727, Walpole was able to overcome this crisis and win the general election 1734. However, during the remaining seven years in his cabinet in power the political authority of Walpole steadily falling. There was even more powerful opposition, which included a brilliant young orator and statesman William Pitt, who criticized conducted by the Walpole appeasement of Spain.
In recent years, Walpole stay in office were marred by personal tragedies. In 1737 the wife died Walpole, allowing him to marry Mary Skerrett. Unfortunately, three months after their marriage, Mary died in childbirth. In the same year in the terrible suffering of the dead Queen Caroline, the most faithful ally of the Walpole.
In 1739 Walpole was finally forced to abandon its policy of peace. He reluctantly declared war on Spain, known as' The War of Jenkins' ear for ', though not been convinced of the successful outcome for England. 'Patriots', as called parliamentary opposition, have attracted public opinion on their side. Their positions have increased in 1737 with the accession to the Prince of Wales, had fallen out with the king and queen. The prince used all his influence in Parliament to strike Walpole defeated in elections in 1742. After the first few weeks of the new session of Parliament, it became clear that Walpole finally lost confidence in the House of Commons. February 2, 1742 Walpole resigns. His enemies were eager not only to his resignation, and shame, and tried to accuse him of corruption. After a long protracted struggle, they were defeated. In the last years of life Walpole continued to participate actively in the backroom political maneuvers. Walpole died in London on March 18, 1745.