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Cesar FRANCK (Franck Csar Auguste)

( French composer)

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Biography Cesar FRANCK (Franck Csar Auguste)
photo Cesar FRANCK (Franck Csar Auguste)
Native Belgium. Cesar Auguste Franck was born on Dec. 10, 1822 in Liц¬ge (now Belgium). He studied in Liц¬ge, and then at the Paris Conservatoire. By the will of his father, who wanted his son to become a concert pianist-virtuoso, Frank aged 11 years participated in the contest in Liege, and won first prize. As a student wrote a few cycles of piano variations, they are not of interest from an artistic point of view, but show a variety of techniques of piano playing. The same period include the Grand Sonata (Grandes Sonatas) and the First Symphony for large orchestra (Premire Symphonie Grand Orchestre), apparently, performed in Orleans in 1841.
In 1835 the Frank family moved to Paris, and since Cesar was too young for admission to the Conservatory, he took private lessons from A. Reich. Soon, however, Reich died, and Frank continued lessons with Lebornom and P. Zimmermann. In 1837 he was an exception was adopted in the Paris Conservatoire. As is known, in 1823 director of the Conservatory L. Cherubini refused to receive Franz Liszt as a foreigner, but by the time Frank also had French nationality. At the end of the first of its conservatory of Frank won the second prize in the class of Fugue. In 1838 he won first prize in the class body.

The first serious composer Franck experiments are 1842 and 1843: Three is a trio concert (Trois trio concertants) for violin, cello and piano - the official 'first opus' musician. The trio were published by subscription, with the beginning of a subscription list were the names of Dzh.Meyerbera, D. Auber, Donizetti, Halevy, and J. Chopin. Liszt, with whom Frank establish friendly relations, was so struck by the integrity latter part of the third trio that convinced the author to publish it as a separate finished product.

In 1843, Frank created his first major essay - oratorio Ruth (Ruth), which was highly appreciated by G. Meyerbeer and Spontini. Around the time he got the position of organist at the Church of Notre-Dame-de-Loretta.

The first significant works of Frank became authorities of six pieces (Six pices pour grande orgue, 1860-1862). By this time he moved to the church of Saint-Jean-Saint-Francis in the Marais, and thence to the church of Saint-Clotilde, where he served as organist until his death. Among other works of this period - the symphonic poem heard at the mountains (Ce qu'on entend sur la montagne) by Victor Hugo (about 1846), . comic opera with a farm laborer (La valet de ferme, . 1851-1852) and the oratorio The Tower of Babel (La tour de Babel, . 1865),
. All of them remained in manuscript, but heard at mountains - of course, chronologically the first sample of the genre of the symphonic poem (it is noteworthy that the later Liszt wrote a poem on the same story). In 1869, Frank created a work that is often considered the best in his work - an oratorio in eight parts for soloists, chorus and orchestra of the Beatitudes (Les Beatitudes, 1869-1879).

In 1872, Frank received a professorship at the Paris Conservatoire body. This was the foundation of what later became known as 'great tradition'. Conservatory focused primarily on the operatic genre; Organ Class Frank was in fact the composition class, . who attended not only by formal students of Frank, . but, . who was ready to accept the new principles of teaching, . based on the study of art of Bach and Beethoven,

Young Frank's entourage, which reigned a spirit of creativity, stimulated the creative activity of the composer, the formation of his own aesthetic. In 1879 he finished a beautiful piano quintet (1878-1879). Proved very fruitful and the next few years (1882-1886), . when there appeared a number of works: the symphonic poem hunter Damned (La chasseur maudit, . 1882) - a tribute to the composer's romanticism and the influence of H. Berlioz; Jinnah for piano and orchestra (Les Djinns, . 1884); prelude, . Chorale and Fugue for piano (1884), Symphonic Variations for Piano and Orchestra (Variations symphoniques, . 1885), Violin Sonata in A Major (1886 - present for the wedding of the great violinist E. Ysaye); prelude, . Aria and Finale for Piano (1886-1887),

Symphony in D minor (1886-1888), first performed in 1889, the Conservatory Concert Society, was met with public hostility, but Frank continued to work on String Quartet in D major (1889). Filled in 1890, the quartet had a resounding success - it was a long-awaited triumph of the composer. Next opus were three organs of the majestic chorale (Trois chorals, 1890), excellent, inspiring examples of his variational technique. The composer's life suddenly cut short: he was in a street accident and died in Paris on November 8, 1890.

The value of creativity is difficult to overestimate the Frank. He not only created his own school, but radically updated the French musical tradition. He proved that the national spirit is not confined within the walls of the Opera, and that France can be created symphonic music of the highest class of European. He raised his organ music genres from the quagmire of a successful sensationalism to a level comparable with the works of Bach, and the same applies to the piano genre - two large series of Frank can be placed next to any of Beethoven piano sonatas. He was a very talented teacher, and among the students a lot of Frank's outstanding musicians - in. Indy, E. Chausson, P. de Brevil, G. Roparts, A. du Parc; view Frank meant a lot to such different composers as Bizet, E. Shabrov, P. Dukas. With great respect to the person and work of Frank treated Debussy. It is important to distinguish chromatic letter, . free use Frank nonakkordov and expressiveness of its modulations - the harmonic language of the composer pointed out to his followers the way out of templates, many new things introduced into the region of Frank and cyclic forms.,

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