Francois Marie Charles Fourier( French utopian socialist.)
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Biography Francois Marie Charles Fourier
Born April 7, 1772 in Besancon, in the family clothing merchant. During the French Revolution took part in anti-government uprising of Lyons. His family property was confiscated, and himself Fourier jailed. Some time later he was called up for military service. In 1799 he became a traveling salesman. During one of his business trips Fourier drew attention to the fact that the apple in a Paris restaurant is worth a hundred times more expensive than in Besancon. This was the moment of insight - comprehension of nature 'new sotsietarnogo order'. Fourier has made repeated attempts to interest his concepts of officials, but the support was not found.
In 1808 he published his major work - The theory of the four movements and the general fate (Thorie des quatre mouvements et des destines gnrales). According to Fourier, the core of the ideal system of social organization is a phalanx. It embodies the idea of universal brotherhood and is based on the relevant private and common interests. Phalanx is built on the agricultural basis, but requires interaction with industrial production. In it together from 1700 to 2000 people. With the demonstrated ability of a free personality is complemented by another that is the basis of happiness all together and individually. Jobs phalanx is attractive because the work corresponds to the abilities and aptitudes of each individual. Work teams are created on the basis of mutual love. Each brigade in psychological terms is 'series'. The other 'series' as it relates to the competitors, but without the hostility inherent in class society. It was assumed that members of the phalanx can change classes, meet 'instincts pleasant variability'. In a variety of occupations a person can experience feelings of love, rivalry, or involvement in the 'Kabalistic'. Under the latter concept of Fourier meant 'attraction' to the enigmatic, mysterious. All of these instincts, he believed, should be seen as a gift from God and release, rather than suppress them, as happens in today's society, where they become destructive passions.
Throughout the life of the Fourier reviewed and refined their ideas, introducing a 'System' new terms and theories. The most important of his recent works - A Treatise on housekeeping, agricultural associations (Trait de l'association domestique agricole, . 1822), . The new economic sotsietarny World (Le nouveau monde industriel et societaire, . 1829) and False industry (La fausse industrie, . 1835-1836),
Fourier died in Paris on October 10, 1837. On the basis of his ideas formed 'sotsietarnaya school', which became a follower of V. Considerant. In the mid-19. Fourier system, revised and refined, has a noticeable influence on the thinkers, striving to find a new social ideal. Followers of Fourier conducted a social experiment in the U.S. on the famous Brook Farm in Roxbury (pc. Massachusetts).