Albert Schweitzer (Schweitzer Albert)( theologian, philosopher, musician and physician.)
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Biography Albert Schweitzer (Schweitzer Albert)
Born January 14, 1875 in Kayzersberge (Upper Alsace, in those years in Germany) in a poor Lutheran pastor. He spent his childhood in a village in the valley Gyunsbah Munster (near Colmar), from an early age learned to play the organ, attended a technical school in Munster, a gymnasium in Mö+hlhausen. In 1883 entered the University of Strasbourg, where he attended lectures V. Windelband. After graduation, he defended his dissertation for a Ph.D. (1899) and Licentiate in Theology (1900). Gabilitatsionnuyu (ie. giving the right to teach), work on theology, he defended in 1902. While studying regularly flock to Paris, where he took lessons on the organ and piano. In Strasbourg, often played the organ in the church of St.. William. Fond of music of Bach and Wagner. Played on the organ in Berlin, Paris and other European cities. In 1902 he was appointed assistant pastor of the parish in Strasbourg, and in 1903 headed the foundation of St.. Thomas. He was engaged in teaching, lecturing about Schopenhauer, Hartmann, Zudermane, Goethe, Nietzsche and other thinkers. Published in French labor Bach - musician and poet (JSBach, musicien-poö¬te, 1905), came out in 1908 revised and enlarged edition in German under the title Johann Sebastian Bach (Johann Sebastian Bach). This book, as well as the study of Jesus' life history (Geschichte der Leben-Jesu-Forschuung, 2 nd Edition 1913, first edition in 1906 under the title From Reymarusa to Wrede (Von Reimarus zu Wrede) brought him fame.
In his autobiography, published in 1931, Schweitzer wrote: "One morning in Gyunsbahe I said to myself, up to thirty years, feel entitled to read sermons, study science and music, but then turn directly to dedicate myself to serving the people '. Schweitzer had never participated in the 'social' activities, assumed the role outside of the existing real world and did not try to change it, he created his own picture of the world - this, in which he could live in accordance with their own ideas. By that time, when Schweitzer reached the age of 30, he was a famous theologian, teacher and preacher, a recognized expert on Bach and organostroeniya. Nevertheless, he left his favorite activities and began to study medicine. For many years, his motto was: 'First, I should treat people, and only then carry them to the word of God'. After graduating from the course at the Medical Faculty, University of Strasbourg (1905-1912), . Schweitzer received his medical degree (1913, . thesis - Psychiatric assessment of the personality of Jesus) and, . collecting funds to provide minimum sanitary station, . went to Africa,
. In 1913 he managed to create a hospital in the village of LambaröLnöL on the OgoouöL River in the French colony of French Equatorial Africa (in the province of Gabon, at the time the French Congo and later - the Republic of Gabon).
During the First World War as an Alsatian, and hence Germanic citizen, was interned and sent to a camp in France. In 1918 - after the transfer of Alsace - Lorraine into the French state - Schweitzer took French citizenship. For some time speaking with the organ concerts and lectures in Europe, raised money that enabled him to pay debts, adjusted the shaky health of the French camp, resumed work on the philosophical writings. Schweitzer was especially popular in Sweden, where his lectures gathered together many people from all over the country. Since that time, began a kind of 'cult Schweitzer', through which for many years been able to support the activities of the hospital in LambaröLnöL. Savings helped stressed spartan life Schweitzer. In 1923 he left that was started in Gabon book Culture and Ethics, in which the thinker expressed his idea of home.
The current status of European culture, Schweitzer questioned why the world, based on early life-affirming, the moral of the original has become corrupt. 'This can only be explained by the fact that this world had no real roots in the theoretical thought. The ideas that gave birth to him, were noble, emotional, but not deep. They are not so much to prove the connection of ethics began with the beginning of a life-asserting, as intuitively caught him. Therefore, supporting the life-affirming and moral principle, theoretical thought is not investigated in the present neither the one nor the other, nor the internal connection between them '.
The idea of embracing and life-affirmation and ethics, was shveytserovskaya concept of 'reverence for life', the monument which was built in LambaröLnöL actually own hands philosopher Hospital. Schweitzer wrote: 'I am - the life that wants to live in the midst of other lives, who want to live'. Next to this 'life-affirmation of his spiritual act: in which the person ceases to live as a need and starts with reverence given to life to reveal its true value'. 'At the same time, people, now has become a thinking, feels the need to treat any will to live with the same reverence as to his own. He feels a new life as part of its. Good he thinks to save lives, to help her, lift up to the highest level of life, capable of development; evil - to destroy life, to harm her, to dominate life, capable of development. That is a absolute principle of ethics'.
Among other works, in which he developed this idea - Decline and Revival of Culture. Philosophy of Culture (Verfall und Wiederaufbau der Kultur. Kultur und Ethik, 1923), Mysticism of the Apostle Paul (Die Mystik des Apostels Paulus, 1930); Schweitzer's autobiography Out of my life and my thoughts (Aus meinem Leben und Denken, 1931); Worldview Indian thinkers. Mysticism and Ethics (Die Weltanschauung der indischen Denker. Mystik und Ethik, 1935).
Schweitzer, in his own pragmatic noticed that the 'personal example - not just the best method of persuasion, but only'. Often, his ability to persuade, encourages people to sacrifice sometimes considerable sums to support the hospital, caused irritation and accusations of self-promotion, a desire to create a symbol of mercy. At some point to it labeled 'a monster of Mercy'. In February 1924 a thinker once again went to Africa. Completely destroyed the hospital had to be rebuilt in another place, but at this time Schweitzer was more volunteers. Soon came a few doctors and nurses from Europe. All those who arrived in LambaröLnöL, refused to receive a salary or any other remuneration. By 1927 a new hospital was built, which could take a much larger number of patients. Soon the village of LambaröLnöL became world famous and Schweitzer bitterly noted that 'the truth, too, has had to develop'.
In July 1927 Schweitzer returned to Europe, where he continued giving lectures and concerts. In Europe it was awaiting recognition, the award of honorary awards and titles of the largest universities. In Goethe's award Schweitzer built a house in Gyunsbahe, which became a place of recreation staff LambaröLnöL, and subsequently memorial thinker. During the 1930's he repeatedly traveled to Africa, watching the ever-expanding hospital, turned into a major medical hospital. Despite the severity of wartime hospital Schweitzer survived the Second World War, continuing to work as usual. Schweitzer was able to return to Europe only in 1948, having stayed in LambaröLnöL ten years. In 1949 at the invitation of the University of Chicago, visited the U.S.. In the 1950's a thinker has been using a truly world-famous - his name was called schools, streets and even vehicles. In 1953, Schweitzer won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1952, for funds built near LambaröLnöL village for lepers. In 1957 made an 'Appeal to mankind', calling on governments to stop testing nuclear weapons, and will no longer stop to remind about the atomic threat. After Schweitzer in 1959 all went to LambaröLnöL, hospital town became a place of pilgrimage for many people from around the world.
Died in LambaröLnöL Schweitzer September 4, 1965.