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Shchepkin Mikhail Semenovich

( Russian actor.)

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Biography Shchepkin Mikhail Semenovich
Born November 6, 1788 in s.Krasnoe Oboyan County Kursk province in the family castle of Count GS Volkenshtein. In 1800 while studying at Sudzhensk People's College (1799-1801) Schepkin played the role of servants in comedy Rosemary AP Sumarokova Vzdorschitsa, . in 1801-1802 played on a home theater count Volkenshtein, . including actor (role 'in transforming') in the comedy NR Sudovschikova Experience Art, . Stepan-sbitenschika and landlord-Gallomaniac Firyulina in comic operas JB Knyazhnin Sbitenschik and misfortune of the coach,
. While studying in Kursk national school (1801-1803), got behind the scenes of urban theater brothers ME, AE. and PE leopards - copied texts roles sufliroval, in 1805, in a benefit actresses PG Lykov, successfully defeated and replaced zapivshego actor in the role of Andrew, postman in the ZOA AL-S.Merse. Years Shchepkin combined the duties of the secretary of his lord, Count Volkenshtein, with artistic activity in the company of leopards. In 1816 he joined the troupe JF Stein and O. Kalinowski, who played in the cities of southern and south-western Russia. In 1818 he moved to Poltava Theater, led by writer IP Kotlyarevskii. Especially for Shchepkina, immediately assumed a leading position in the company, wrote the role of the elected Kotlyarevsky Makogonenko and farmer Michael Chuprun in 'Little Russia operas' Natalka-Poltavka and Moskal, smoothies. After the collapse of the theater in 1821, the actor returned to the company of Stein, who led at the time Tula Theater.
In 1822 Shchepkin family was freed from serfdom.

In the province played a variety of roles, including women (Erem in Nedoroslev DI Fonvizin, Baba Yaga in the comic opera of the same name, the text of DP Gorchakov, music. M. Stabingera), participated in the ballet, 'appeared in the tragedies and dramas, where he played the role of princes and counts'. The diversity of his provincial repertory due not only to the needs of small companies, in which he was, but the versatility of his acting talent. In the years of work in the province began to form cast method Schepkina. Theatrical manifesto reads the story, which occupies a central place in the Memoirs Shchepkina of amateur actors prince PV Meshersky, whom he saw in 1810 in the role Salidara (Dowry deception Sumarokova). From these impressions Shchepkin concluded that 'art is so high, how close to nature'. Departing from primitive clowning and rejecting epigonous craft provincial classicism, Shchepkin drew up a new acting technique. Actor skillfully won their ungrateful external data ( 'short stature and fullness of a small corps', . 'does not quite fit the dramatic roles'), . learned to build a role in the abrupt shifts in the behavior of character, . composed of many heroes meticulously designed details, . loved the performances 'with disguises',
. Actor had the greatest success in living, lyrical and comic roles, requiring rapid external and internal transformations. Learned from these years of striving to overload the figure remained at the stage Shchepkina to turn 1830-1840-ies.

In 1822 at the initiative of officials Offices Moscow theater V. Golovin, who saw Schepkin in Romny at Elijah's Fair (Golovin, later recalled: "Mikhail Semenovich played in the play experience art in a difficult role: they men, women. In a thousand forms that Proteus shone before me like a precious diamond, with all its facets'), the actor was invited to the Moscow troupe (from 1824 - in the Little Theater). Schepkin debuted in the theater on September 20, 1822 Moss in roles in the comedy Bogatonova MN Zagoskina Mr. Bogatonov, Provincial, or in the countryside and in the role of Ugar (Martha and the revelry or lackey War Jean-B.Dyubua). Go Shchepkina in Moscow had the watershed not only in his life, but also for the Moscow theater in general, experiencing a period of heavy organizational and creative turmoil.

Moscow Shchepkin meets 'enlightened theater-goers' - artistic intelligentsia grouped around the capital's theaters first third of the 19.; Influence exerted by them on the actor, hugely. Shchepkin respectfully remembered in old age on FF Kokoshkin, led the Directorate of the Moscow theater, and AA Shakhovskoi; play AI Pisarev until the end of days included in benefisnye performances, and the credibility of ST Aksakov always remained for him unshakeable. In Moscow Shchepkin survived only a few roles of its provincial repertory, he had to start almost from scratch. Many big-time fell to him in comedies, vaudeville and alterations Pisareva Shakhovsky, Zagoskina, Kokoshkina, but they are bringing up talent actor in unpretentious themes and situations, although they reached Schepkin infectiousness and professional shine. One of his little masterpieces was Repeykin in vaudeville Pisarev busybody, or is it afraid of the master (1824). Soon Schepkin secure their place 'first comic actor for roles typical in so-called high comedy, Role for the elderly bachelors noble fathers, husbands, and the original general to represent the most difficult of the comic'. Schepkin was the best actor secular comedy and vaudeville in the days when the time of their domination on the Russian stage ended. The resulting theatrical mask, . enthusiastically part of the public, . clearly fettered the possibility of an actor, . and already in 1823 the critic assumed, . what, . 'can, . there are characters, . in a position to provide it with great perfection ', . but the modern drama could offer Shchepkin new challenges and made repeated,

. The supreme example of comedy 1820 was Moliere, . and as an attempt to go to great creative tasks in the repertoire Shchepkina entered, Arnolfo (School of Women, . 1825), . Sganarelle (School for Husbands, . 1828) and Harpagon (Miser, . 1830; was transferred Aksakov specifically for Shchepkina),
. Role of the School of Women Shchepkin built on the dramatic subtext, and the audience, laughing at Arnolfo, could not 'do not regret the unfortunate situation of the old man'. Mimicking his hero 'at the turn of the passions, . a rapid transition from anger to calm, . from joy to despair, . from tenderness to fury ', . Shchepkin found Receptions, . astonished simplicity, . conducted an elaborate role in the improvisational ease,
. 'This is the very nature in the heat of passion' - wrote a reviewer 'North bees'. 'The fruit of the great talent and think deeply about the study' was Harpagon Schepkina.

The appearance on the scene in 1830-ies comedies Sir.doc and Gogol Shchepkin allowed to escape from the sphere of purely comic. According to researcher M. Feldman, . Cast Famusov (Woe from Wit Griboedova, . 1830, . first played a scene from the comedy; 1831, . play all) and mayor (Inspector Gogol, . 1836) 'Shchepkin - the first among Russian actors - has created large-scale synthesis of living and social-psychological phenomena of our time', . opened 'new prospects of development of Russian acting school',
. Not only necessary external specificity, but also the role of domestic grain Famusov was for Shchepkina patriarchal 'gentility' character, firmness of his attitudes. Returning to the role again and again, Shchepkin craft a more sober and hard look at Famusov. Auditor became the central event of his artistic biography, the role of the mayor - his supreme triumph, the focus of the actor's method. Schepkin played the mayor 'Russian dark man, dark at all, except the ability to bypass someone wants to', 'carnivorous prolazoy and rogue', hard-boiled cynicism which breaks through the charming and cunning veneer. Inner turmoil, in which the mayor was immersed in the first scene is brighter than the actions indicated the 'vastness of his fraud'. Depicting the hero objective and many-sided, Shchepkin did not jump to the verdict, but in its final assessment was adamant.

In 1835 a benefit Shchepkin first played Shylock in Merchant of Venice William Shakespeare and Simon in 'dramatic vaudeville' T. Sauvage and J. Delyure sailor. The first character in a Shakespearean repertory Shchepkina, played them with a truly romantic bitterness, was received with bewilderment by the public - said the inertia of tastes. But the role of the sailor Simon was among the highest achievements of the actor. 'Recreating' the expression of VG Belinsky, this role Shchepkin filled purely melodramatic plot truly tragical contents, aroused the audience full of compassion for the hero. Indissolubility romantic and realistic tendencies inherent in the Russian art 19 in the second quarter. Fully affected in the works Schepkina.

Ostro and painfully Shchepkin poverty and monotony of the repertoire, the absence of significant new roles. Major writers tried to come to his aid: Belinsky wrote a play for him, fifty years Uncle, . or a strange disease (1839), Alexander Herzen, . TN Granovsky and EF Korsch transferred play F. Messindzhera new way to pay old debts (1845); N. H. Ketscher - Henry IV (1840, . banned by the censor) and Comedy of Errors (1852) Shakespeare,
. But all these pieces and transfers only to a greater or lesser expressiveness varied themes already sounded in his work. The main hope in the 1840's Shchepkin connected with Gogol, before which stood in awe. Actor has played in his plays and Podkolyosin Kochkareva (Marriage), reassuring (Players), Burdyukova (Litigation). Turgenev, . writing a hanger for a benefit Shchepkina (1849), . schepkinskoe into account the ability to organically combine the comic with a pathetic and tragic, . his knowledge of life, . excellence narrator, . but also suggested that the actor brought the latest trends of literature look at the 'humiliated and insulted' hero,
. The play was banned and played only in 1862. Turgenev also wrote for Shchepkina Moshkina role in the Bachelors (1849). In the first half of 1850's most important for the actor became a tragic role in the Baron's Miserly Knight Alexander Pushkin (1853) and the role of Murom in the wedding Krechinsky A.V.Suhovo-Kobylin. Measuring themselves to the new aesthetics, arguing with her, Shchepkin played in the play by Alexander Ostrovsky Poverty is no crime Korshunova (1854) and loved Tortsov (1855) and in his people - Sochtjomsja Bolshova (1861).

Actor brilliant form, Shchepkin not our task to invent new techniques of game. Using the same tools that PS Mochalov in melodrama or VI Zhivokini in vaudeville, Shchepkin came to the question about the internal technology actor. It approved the principle of the stage, placed after Stanislavsky the basis of his 'system' - the principle of internal justification for the role, receiving, scenic assignments. According to P. Markov, Shchepkin 'pointed the way and method of organic creativity', 'subjectivity combined creativity with psychological characteristics of the image'. Shchepkin approved social role of Russian actor, raised his career to another level - from litsedeya he turned actor in a responsible member of society. 'Brilliant integrity' Shchepkina (in the words of NE Efros), his devotion to the theater, the clarity and rigor of the scene form with 'fire power' experiences to determine the altitude established tradition of acting. Shchepkin taught the actor consciously work on the role and himself, and taught the culture of work, was 'daily lesson' (S. Shumsky) for artists. His closest disciples were Shumsky, A. Schubert, GN Fedotov, IV Samarin. Rich life observation Shchepkina reflected in Russian literature: its oral histories were taken into account by Gogol, Herzen, Sukhovo-Kobylin, NA Nekrasov, etc..

Traditions of acting and attitude to the theater and theater arts, laid Shchepkin, were crucial to the development of art of the Maly Theater, which is established for the informal name 'House Shchepkin'. Until the mid-20 in. it played a direct descendants of M. Schepkin. Name Shchepkina is theater school at the Maly Theater.

He died in Yalta Shchepkin 11 (23) August 1863.

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