Max Ernst (Ernst Max)( German, French and American painter and sculptor, founder of Dada, one of the leading surrealists and creators of technology collage.)
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Biography Max Ernst (Ernst Max)
Max Ernst was born in the town of Brц╪hl in Germany April 2, 1891. In 1908-1914 in conjunction with classes in painting and literature, studied philosophy, psychology and art history at the University of Bonn. In 1919 in Cologne, participated in the creation of the Dadaist group - followers of the movement, . arose three years earlier in Zurich among artists, . Writers and critics, . disillusioned by the war and sought to overthrow the established social, . moral and artistic values,
Also in 1919 the artist created his first collages. For them, he took prints from scientific publications and old catalogs, brochures and posters, pages from popular novels, etc.. Removing a subject from its context and transferring it to absurd surroundings, turns into a surreal image. Ernst did a whole series of such works, such as 'a novel in collage' Stobezgolovaya woman (1929), consisting of 149 tracks.
In 1922 Ernst moved to Paris, where he lived before the Second World War. In 1924 he joined Andre Breton and the surrounding artists and poets, . with whom founded Surrealism - art direction, . sought to convey the reality of the subconscious through the 'automatic' or technique of free association,
. In search of technology that would be more appropriate than a collage, Ernst invented frottazh - transfer to paper texture of a coarse or rough surface. For example, the sheet was placed on neobstrugannoe tree and wiped pencil or charcoal, as a result it turned out an image that resembles any recognizable form, Ernst dorisovyval his paint. The artist also used other automated equipment, such as spraying paint on a canvas or placed two freshly painted paintings at one another and get unpredictable painting on both canvas. Often, these motifs were processed in some prehistoric landscape with texture, reminiscent of plant forms, balls of interwoven roots, lava or stagnant water. Artist presents landscapes such bizarre creatures resembling Dryad, seahorses and insects.
In 1941 Max Ernst arrived in the United States and first settled in New York and then in Arizona. In 1951 he created a series of miniature landscapes of Arizona, some of them were the size of a postage stamp, he called them 'paintings, the microbes'.
In 1951 he returned to Paris, where in 1959 the Museum of Modern Art organized a retrospective exhibition of his work. Similar exhibitions were held in New York: Museum of Contemporary Art (1961), at the Jewish Museum (1966) and in the Solomon Guggenheim Museum (1975). In 1948 his book Beyond Painting. Max Ernst died in Paris on 1 April 1976.