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Decima Junius Juvenal (Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis)

( The greatest Roman satirical poet.)

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Biography Decima Junius Juvenal (Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis)
(ca. 55-60 - mind. after 127)
Dates of birth and death of Juvenal established only approximately. In III satire he calls himself a native of Aquino (on the south-east Latsiya). Survived recent biography of Juvenal, who does not inspire much confidence. In particular, in the biography says that he was either the son, or disciple of a wealthy freedman, and into adulthood practiced rhetoric, making it to the tendency of the soul, not to prepare for social activities. For derision actor Paris, the favorite of Emperor Domitian, Juvenal (who was already 80 years old) in the junior officer was sent to southern Egypt, where he soon died. Some details of this story, citing obviously incorrect (Domitian was assassinated in 96, when Juvenal was about 40 years). In the XV satire has a mention of the poet's sojourn in Egypt, and in IV, he gives expression to his hatred of Domitian.
Before we got 15 hexameters written satires Juvenal (from another, the latest in the collection, survived only a beginning, 60 lines), which are collected in 5 books. I book was published shortly after 100, the following appeared intermittently up to 127. Apparently, while he was alive Domitian, serious literary experimentation Juvenal not started, and when he died, the poet himself was elderly.

As I Juvenal satire represents his poetic program. Vices and crimes (poet immediately throws the relevant vivid pictures) are simply forced to write satire. However, the enemies of free speech sympathetic ear, they are dangerous, but because it goes only to the dead. II satire - a denunciation of homosexuality, degenerate Rome is counterposed to the harsh, semi-legendary heroes of the early republic. The circumstances in which the action is played Satire III, scheduled in a few lines: Juvenal deplores the departure of his friend Umbritsiya and at the same time sympathetic to his plan to leave Rome and settle in a deserted Kum. In a lengthy invective, embedded in the mouth Umbritsiya, exposes squalor of city life. Remarkable attack, which attacks the poet who became a part of Roman life cunning Greeks, who, in his opinion, have here the hypocrisy and licentiousness. IV satire begins with an attack on Crispin, upstart Egyptian who came into council Domitian, but the true object of satire - the most perverse manners Domitian. In V satire describes the humiliation suffered by the table a rich patron of the poor and subservient client: it serves disgusting food and beverages, while the owner enjoys the delicacies and the best wines. VI Satire - the most lengthy (661 line) and the notable work Juvenal. Poet in horror: his friend was going to marry Posthumous. But all women dissolute, arrogant, insufferable, tyrannical, vicious, vulgar, intrusive, like a drink, vain, cruel, superstitious and prone to murder. Satire VII is devoted to the indifference of the rich to the talent and learning. Destitution and poverty in the poet, is no better account for the historian, lawyer, to attract customers, forced to furnish a fake luxury; teachers and teachers are maltreated and cheated. In VIII satire Juvenal claims that only a noble man who virtues: generosity is not inherited, and in the splendor of the ancient name of vice and effeminacy even more shameful. IX satire - a dialogue, . ironic, . obscene, . and sometimes suddenly lyrical, . Juvenal and his friend, poor guy, . who makes his living by the proximity of the odious and grasping, . Although rich pervert, . but at the same time performs his marital duties, and makes his father,

A satire - perhaps the most rhetorical work of all that is written Juvenal. The main theme (what the human attraction hurt by the same people) announced in the beginning and illustrated by vivid examples from the history. S. Johnson belongs to the famous arrangement of this satire, which he called on the vanity of human wishes. In XI satire Juvenal praises the simple life. He decries the luxury and invites other peaches at the unpretentious lunch, all supplies for which there will be right there in the name of the poet and in his garden. XII satire begins with the sacrifice on the occasion of the return of a friend who hardly escaped from shipwreck. To distract himself from the suspicion of personal interest in this friendship, Juvenal mentions that a friend has three sons, the legitimate heir. Finalized a satire describing the fantastic offerings to the gods. In XIII satire Juvenal trying to comfort a friend who did not return the debt. Poet sneers at the corruption of morals and argues that the damage suffered can be considered in this terrible age minimum. Satire XIV shows the strength of parental example: the children can easily learn all the vices, but selfishness, which they should be taught specifically. Learning, they will be ready for self-interest to lie and even kill. In XV satire described Battle between the residents of two small towns in southern Egypt, in which a man torn to pieces and eaten. Juvenal This proves that the brutality and madness of a man superior to animals. From XVI satire remained a fragment, which sets out the advantages enjoyed by the military compared to civilian: they can beat them with impunity, and they bullied, and when to refer to justice, their services speedy trials.

In Juvenal's satires before us presents Roman society, especially so as it was in his adolescence and early youth. While Juvenal wrote in a relatively prosperous era of Trajan and Hadrian, he owns almost obsessive passion for a much more dark days of Nero and Domitian. Juvenal has the passionate poetic imagination. From previous satirists, Horace and Lutsiliya, distinguished by its flaming indignation and constant tendency to notice the filth and vice. Strengths Juvenal - hammered style and ability to draw a memorable scene, his weakness - in the chaotic presentation and empty rhetoric. Some of his aptly put it, such as panem et circenses ( 'bread and circuses'), mens sana in corpore sano ( 'a healthy body, healthy mind'), familiar to everyone. However, the latter often misunderstood as a glorification of physical health, in addition to which, as it were by itself is a mental health. In fact, the poet says in the end X of satire, that a person should ask the gods to grant only 'healthy mind in a healthy body'.
Posthumous fame. Around 250 years after his death, Juvenal stayed in oblivion. His satire gained popularity in 4., With an overall revival of interest in pagan literature. Throughout the next century, it was perhaps the most widely read writer in Italy, Gaul, Spain and North Africa. Satire Juvenal were rediscovered in 9. And he became one of the 'golden poets' of the Middle Ages. Particularly strong influence it had on English literature. No Juvenal unthinkable as scourging intonation Popa, Gibbon and Swift, and the very manner of their letters.

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