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Jonah YAKIR Emmanuilovich

( Soviet military leader, commander of rank 1 (1935).)

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Biography Jonah YAKIR Emmanuilovich
Born 3 (15) in August 1896 in Chisinau. Son Pharmacists. He studied at the University of Basel, Switzerland (1914) and the Kharkov Institute of Technology (1915), the Higher Military Academy germanskogo General Staff (1927-1928). In 1915-1917 worked as a turner at a defense plant in Odessa.
After the February Revolution of 1917 led the anti-war propaganda among the soldiers of the 5 th Regiment Zaamurskogo in Chisinau. In December 1917 he was elected a member of Bessarabian Council member gubpartkoma and gubrevkoma. Since January 1918 the commander of the Red Guard units, who fought against the Romanian troops. Spring and summer Tiraspol composite detachment commander in the battles against the Austro-Germanic troops. Since June 1918, Voronezh Commissioner Brigade Division, since September the head of the political section of the Southern troops curtains, a member of the Revolutionary Military Council from October 8 th Army. Since July 1919 head of the 45 th Infantry Division, in August-September, commander of the Southern Group of Forces 12-th army during its withdrawal from the area surrounding their Birzula, Gault (now Pervomaisk) to Zhitomir and Kiev. In 1919-1920 commanded the 45 th Infantry Division on the southern front, Fastovsky, Zolochivske, Lviv groups of troops and the 14 th Army in the south-western front. In 1921-1923 Commander of the Crimean region of the Kiev military district and the troops of the Kiev area, from September 1923 the commander and commissar of the 14 th Infantry Corps in December 1923 the Assistant Commander of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and Crimea. Since April 1924 Head of military educational institutions of the Red Army in November 1925 Commander of the Ukrainian (Kiev later) Military District.

In 1930-1934 member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR, since 1936 member of the Military Council of the People's Commissariat of Defense of the USSR. In 1930 a candidate member of the Central Committee, since 1934 member of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b). May 10, 1937 was transferred to the post of commander of the Leningrad Military District. At the February-March (1937) Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) when discussing the NI Bukharin, AI Rykov advocated their expulsion from the party, 'trial and execution'.

May 28, 1937, was arrested on charges of involvement in the so-called military-fascist conspiracy in the Red Army. The structure of 'the center of conspiracy in addition Yakir entered its' head' Tukhachevsky, . commander I rank Uborevich, . corps commanders AI Cork, . RP Eideman, . BM Feldman, . VM Primakov and VK Putna, . but also committed suicide May 30, 1937 Chief Political Commissar of the Red Army Army Commissar I rank JB Gamarnik,

From 1 to 4 June 1937 an enlarged meeting of the military council at the People's Commissariat of Defense with the participation of members of the Politburo of the CPSU (b). Before the meeting of the Military Council, all participants were familiarized with a receipt obtained using physical force 'confessions' Tukhachevskogo, Yakir, Uborevich and other. These same fraudulent testimony widely cited KE Voroshilov in the report, . which he began with the approval, . that 'bodies Commissariat disclosed in the army long existed, and with impunity wield, . strictly conspired, . counter-revolutionary fascist organization, . headed people, . who stood at the head of the army ',
. At the meeting of the Military Council was made by Stalin. Referring to the testimony of detainees, he concluded that there was a 'political-military conspiracy against the Soviet authorities, encouraged and funded by the Germanic fascists'.

The investigation was conducted in haste and was completed on June 9, 1937 already, when the Attorney General of the USSR A. Vyshinsky formally interviewed the accused. On the same day, after an audience with Stalin he signed the indictment. June 11 before the start of the trial at the reception of Stalin's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR NI Ezhov and Chairman of the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR Court V. Ulrich.

Before the trial investigators were instructed by any means untried to persuade them to show the court the testimony given by them during the investigation, and to assure that this will ease their plight. These instructions were carried. Investigators, fabricated charges, accompanied by the accused at his trial, were with them in the waiting rooms and in the courtroom.

During the processing of the accused were allowed to make a declaration of repentance in the name of Stalin, who is alleged to have mercy on them. At one of these statements, written Yakir June 9, 1937, Stalin wrote: 'a scoundrel and a prostitute'. Voroshilov and Vyacheslav Molotov joined this, and Voroshilov wrote: "absolutely precise definition ', and LM Kaganovich added:' Bastards, bastards, and b. ... one punishment - death penalty '.

June 8, 1937 Pravda reported that the Editor received a letter from his ex-wife Yakir, in which she disavowed and cursed her husband

. June 11, 1937 A special bench of the Supreme Court of the USSR V. Ulrich, . Marshals of the Soviet Union Blyukher and Budionov, . commanders YI Alksnis, . Shaposhnikov, . IP Belova, . Dybenko and ND Kashirina considered the case of 'military-fascist conspiracy' and sentenced him to death members,
. The sentence was executed the next day.

The trial of Tukhachevsky, Yakir, and the other was used by the Stalinist leadership to further strengthen the repression in the Army and Navy.

In 1957 Yakir was rehabilitated.

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