JAKOV IV (James IV)( King of Scotland, son of James III and Margaret of Denmark)
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Biography JAKOV IV (James IV)
Born March 17, 1473, probably in the castle of Stirling. In 1488 a group of rebel aristocrats seized the young Jacob and used it as its nominal leader of a galloping battle with the forces of his father when Sauchiburne, when the latter was killed. Later, James IV began to wear an iron belt - to atone for unwitting complicity in patricide.
James was crowned in Skц╔ne June 26, 1488, and although he was only 15 years old, soon became the main driving force in the state, personally carefully every aspect of life. An important achievement of Jacob was the final unification of the country, which resulted in the establishment of a unified system of justice, including in mountainous areas. During the reign of James IV, momentous changes in education. In 1495 the university was founded in Aberdeen, and in 1512 - a new college in St Andrews. According to the decree of 1496, the eldest son of every large landowner had university education. In 1505 in Edinburgh, opened the Royal College of Medicine. In 1507 in Scotland began to publish books.
Jacob had built warships and provided the army with artillery - at first he bought the gun, and later began to pour in most of Scotland. His attitude to religion was typical of this era: he was not engaged in pursuit Lollard (adherents of the movement, anticipating the Reformation), as used by clergy as a kind of public servants. Nevertheless, Jacob remained an enthusiastic member of the church in 1507 by Pope Julius II sent him a hat on the helmet and sword.
Jacob was accused of carrying out disastrous foreign policy, but it must be said that from the very beginning of the Board and to its end, he faced the difficult choice. In 1490-1491 he resumed his 'old friendship' with France, which prevailed for two centuries, and for the same years had worsening of relations with Britain. In 1495 James hosted a pretender to the English throne Perkin Uorbeka and recognized in him the Duke of York (for whom he gave himself). But in 1497, thanks to the mediation of Spain, and England had concluded a truce, which culminated in 1502 a comprehensive peace. A year later, James married Margaret, eldest daughter of King Henry VII.
Since Henry VII had already made peace with France, there was a kind of 'triple alliance'. However, in 1509 the English throne warlike Henry VIII, who in November 1511 joined the anti-French Holy League, not taking into account the pope authorized a contract entered into with France. The situation, which turned out to be Jacob, was extremely sensitive, as it vowed to support both sides. Despite the provocations of England, he tried to save the world, but when the summer of 1513 Henry invaded France, James yielded to the demands of his ally and joined to the north of England. Here he was met by a large army, left by Henry. 9 September 1513 at Flodden Field, near Brankstona (40 km east of Selkirk), the Scots suffered a crushing defeat, and Jacob died, bravely fighting on foot
. This marriage of James to the English Princess Margaret of Scotland Stuart dynasty gave rise to claims to the English throne, . so that his great-grandson of James VI also became King James I - after his death in 1603 who had no children of Elizabeth, . the last monarch of the Tudor dynasty.,