Gerard Manley Hopkins (Hopkins Gerard Manley)( English poet, one of the biggest innovators in the literature 19.)
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Biography Gerard Manley Hopkins (Hopkins Gerard Manley)
Born July 28, 1844 at Stratford (Essex). The school in Highgate early displayed talent philologist and poet. In 1863 he went to Balliol College, Oxford University, in the last year adopted Catholicism, graduated from the University with special honors. 1868 was a turning point for him: he burned his early poems and became a novice of the Jesuits.
He returned to poetry in 1875, creating a poem Crash 'Germany' (The Wreck of Deutschland), the first work in his characteristically style. After that, he wrote little, and it was written the quintessential feeling, imagination and syntactic innovation. In 1877 he was ordained a Jesuit priest. In 1884 it approved a professor of Greek Philology, University College Dublin. Hopkins died in Dublin on June 8, 1889. The first edition of his poems, prepared by the poet R. Bridges, came only in 1918.
Contribution of Hopkins's poetry is linked with the concepts of 'samovitost' and 'jumpy rhythm'. Under the first he knew a kind, unique forms of individuality inherent in all things: in a sense, everything in the world 'unconformity, fresh, hidden, unseen' (Variegated Beauty), in t.ch. and the poem itself as it seeks to reflect the unique realities samovitost. The galloping rhythm, which has had an enormous influence on contemporary poets, involves in each line clear of stressed syllables and arbitrary - unstressed, so that some lines go shorter and longer than other. The advantage of this rhythm is that it is close to the tempo of the rough colloquial drawback - that it is fraught with negligence style. To avoid this, Hopkins has resorted to the internal and end rhyme, alliteration, assonance, and other methods, and not for decoration, but for the disclosure of content. The galloping rhythm responsible samovitosti, because it makes each poem only in its size.
The most significant poem Hopkins almost all religious and generally constitute about three successive groups. In the colorful beauty of nature is interpreted as a reflection of God, rejoicing in the harvest beauty of nature refers to the sublime beauty of the spirit. The later poems are based on the contrast of nature and man. In the last years of his life in Dublin Hopkins, peering into the dark depths of the soul, created the famous 'terrible', or Dublin, sonnets.