Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev( Soviet party and state leaders.)
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Biography Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev
Born 5 (17) April 1894 in the village Kalinovka Kursk province in the miner's family. He received elementary education in parochial school. From 1908 he worked as a mechanic, cleaner boiler was to trade unions and participated in the workers' strikes. During the Civil War fought on the side of the Bolsheviks. In 1918 joined the Communist Party.
In the early 1920's he worked in the mines, he studied at the working faculty of Donetsk Industrial Institute. In the future, engaged in economic and party work in the Donbass and Kiev. In 1920 the head of the Communist Party of Ukraine was LM Kaganovich, and Khrushchev apparently made a favorable impression on him. Soon after the departure Kaganovich in Moscow, Khrushchev was sent to the Industrial Academy. Since January 1931 was at the party work in Moscow, in 1935-1938 he was - the first secretary of the Moscow regional and city party committees - and CIM MK VKP (b). In January 1938 he was appointed first secretary of the Communist Party of Ukraine. In the same year he became a candidate, and in 1939 - a member of the Politburo.
During World War II, Khrushchev served as political commissar of the highest rank (a member of the military councils of several fronts) and in 1943 was promoted to lieutenant-general, led the guerrilla movement behind the front. In the early postwar years led the government in Ukraine, Kaganovich also led the party leadership of the republic. In December 1947, Khrushchev again headed the Communist Party of Ukraine, becoming the first secretary of the CC CP (b) Y; held that post until his move to Moscow in December 1949, where he became first secretary of the Moscow Party Committee and secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b).
Khrushchev initiated the consolidation of collective farms (kolkhoz). This campaign led to a decline over several years the number of collective farms with approximately 250 thousand. to less than 100 thousand. In early 1950, he hatched an even more radical plans. Khrushchev wanted to turn peasant village in agrogoroda to farmers lived in the same house as workers, and had gardens. Published on this occasion Khrushchev's speech in Pravda the next day was refuted in an editorial, which emphasizes the controversial nature of proposals. Yet Khrushchev in October 1952 was appointed one of the main speakers at 19 Congress.
After Stalin's death, when the chairman of the Council of Ministers GM Malenkov resigned as Secretary of the Central Committee, Khrushchev became the 'host' the party apparatus, although up until September 1953 and did not have the title of First Secretary of the. In the period from March to June 1953 Beria attempted to seize power. In order to eliminate Beria, Khrushchev went to an alliance with Malenkov. In September 1953 he was appointed first secretary of the CPSU Central Committee.
In the first years after Stalin's death, spoke of 'collective leadership', but soon after Beria's arrest in June 1953 between Malenkov and Khrushchev began a struggle for power, which scored a victory in the Khrushchev. In early 1954 he launched an ambitious program of development of virgin land in order to increase grain production, and in October the same year led the Soviet delegation in Beijing
. The reason for Malenkov's resignation from his post as chairman of the Council of Ministers in February 1955 was a, . that Khrushchev managed to convince the Central Committee to support a policy of priority development of heavy industry, . hence, . and production of weapons, . and abandon the idea of Malenkov give priority to the production of consumer goods,
. Presidency of the Council of Ministers appointed Khrushchev, Bulganin, securing a position of the first figure in the state.
The most striking event in his career Khrushchev was 20 Party Congress, held in 1956. In a report to Congress, he put forward the thesis that the war between capitalism and communism is not a 'foregone conclusion'. At a closed meeting, Khrushchev condemned Stalin, accusing him of mass destruction of people and misguided policies, nearly ending the liquidation of the USSR in the war against Nazi Germany. The result of this report were riots in eastern bloc countries - Poland (October 1956) and Hungary (October and November 1956). These developments have undermined the position of Khrushchev, especially after in December 1956 revealed that due to insufficient investment breaks down the five-year plan. However, in early 1957, Khrushchev was able to convince the Central Committee to adopt a plan of reorganization of industrial management at the regional level.
In June 1957 the Bureau (formerly the Politburo) of the CPSU Central Committee was organized conspiracy to Khrushchev from his post as first secretary of the Party. After his return from Finland, he was invited to a meeting of the Presidium, which is seven votes to four, called for his resignation. Khrushchev convened a Central Committee plenum, which overturned the decision of the Bureau and dismissed the 'anti-Party group "of Molotov, Malenkov and Kaganovich. (At the end of 1957, Khrushchev dismissed support him in a difficult moment of Marshal Zhukov.) It strengthened the Presidency by his supporters, and in March 1958 became chairman of the Council of Ministers, taking into their own hands all the main levers of power.
In 1957, after a successful test of intercontinental ballistic missiles and launching into orbit the first satellite, Khrushchev made a statement, demanding that Western countries 'end of the Cold War'. His demands for a separate peace treaty with East Germany in November 1958, which would include the resumption of the blockade of West Berlin led to an international crisis. In September 1959, President Eisenhower invited Khrushchev to visit the U.S.. After touring the country, Khrushchev held talks with Eisenhower at Camp David. The international situation is warmed significantly after Khrushchev agreed to postpone a decision on the timing Berlin, but Eisenhower had - to convene a summit conference, which would have considered this question. The Summit was scheduled for May 16, 1960. However, 1 May 1960 in the airspace over Sverdlovsk was shot down U.S. reconnaissance aircraft U-2, and the meeting was disrupted.
'Soft' policy toward the United States drew Khrushchev's hidden, though rigid ideological discussion with the Chinese Communists, condemning talks with Eisenhower and Khrushchev did not recognize the proposed version of 'Leninism'. In June 1960, Khrushchev made a statement about the need to 'further development' of Marxism-Leninism and accounting theory changed historical conditions. In November 1960, . after three weeks of debate, . congress of representatives of communist and workers parties adopted a compromise solution, . Khrushchev allowed the conduct diplomatic negotiations on disarmament and peaceful coexistence, . calling at the same time intensify the struggle against capitalism by all means, . except military,
In September 1960, Khrushchev second visit to the U.S. as head of the Soviet delegation at the UN General Assembly. During the Assembly he was able to hold wide-ranging talks with the heads of governments of several countries. In his report to the Assembly calling for universal disarmament, the immediate elimination of colonialism and the admission of China to the UN. In June 1961, Khrushchev met with U.S. President Dzh.Kennedi and reiterated their demands for Berlin. During the summer of 1961, Soviet foreign policy became increasingly rigid, and in September the Soviet Union broke a three-year moratorium on nuclear testing by conducting a series of explosions.
The autumn of 1961 at 22 Congress of the CPSU, Khrushchev attacked the communist leaders of Albania (which was not at the Congress) for the fact that they continued to support the philosophy of 'Stalinism'. He was referring to the leaders of Communist China. October 14, 1964 Plenum, Khrushchev was relieved of his duties on 1 st Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee and member of the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee. He was replaced by Leonid Brezhnev, who became the first secretary of the Communist Party and Kosygin, who became chairman of the Council of Ministers.
After 1964, Khrushchev, retaining its place in the Central Committee, in essence was a retired. He formally distanced himself from the published in the United States under the name of his two-volume Memoirs of Labor (1971, 1974). Khrushchev died in Moscow on September 11, 1971.
Khrushchev - extremely controversial figure in Soviet history. On the one hand, it is wholly owned by the Stalinist era, is certainly one of a policy of purges and mass arrests. On the other hand, during the Cuban missile crisis, when the world was on the brink of nuclear war and global catastrophe, Khrushchev was able to see reason and stop the escalation of hostilities and to prevent the outbreak of World War III. It was Khrushchev's post-war generation is obliged to start the process of liberation from the deadening ideological schemes of 'reconstruction' of society and the restoration of human rights in the 'one-sixth of the' earth.