NESTEROV Petro( Great Pilot)
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Biography NESTEROV Petro
Born 15 (27) February 1887 r. family educator Novgorod officer cadet school. Financial position Nesterov was a very modest. Soon this prosperity came to an end - his father died. Having lost the breadwinner, the widow Margaret V. was forced to leave four children, government apartment in the Cadet Corps and move into Widows house (now the dormitory Polytechnic University, pr. Gagarin, 2). Soon the family moved to a private apartment.
August 26, 1897, Mr.. Peter Nesterov adopted in Nizhny Novgorod Cadet Corps. He was a brave and sympathetic companion, with a fine lyrical soul, a keen sense of beauty, well painted, sang, played the mandolin.
Peter read a lot. His interests were diverse. With enthusiasm, he devoured books, telling about the daring journeys and navigation, and about the fantastic adventures of the legendary leader of the past, paid much attention to the exact sciences. Scientists to easily. In the statement from the appraisal of the journal for 1903 -1904 year, said: "Cadet class 7 Nesterov ... has a sharp mind, like mathematics, physics, technical drawing. Extremely persistent in decisions, shows the dynamic nature ... Cadet Peter Nesterov - an ideal type of the future officer with strong moral character and courage, able to carry along their subordinates in the battle. "
. At the undergraduate P. Nesterov met with a pretty and fun Galetsky Hope, who later became the faithful companion of his brief life
. Petro was a wonderful family man, as evidenced by the correspondence of spouses. He dearly loved children and his wife, with whom he shared all their grief and joy.
In 1904. Petr Nesterov finished Cadet Corps on 1-th digit. Its among the other six graduates have been referred for further study in the Mikhailovsky Artillery School.
Here he was a good theoretical and practical training, a lot thinking about the future service, he seriously studied the experience of primeneiya artillery during the Russian-Japanese War of 1904-1905. In the work and worry, two years passed quickly, and after a brilliant handed examinations Nesterov appointed Second Lieutenant in the 9 th East Siberian Rifle Artillery Brigade. From the many officers he was favorably distinguished not only knowledge but also his attitude toward subordinates. Soon the artillery went into the calculation of target practice in the first place.
The case turned the fate of Peter Nikolaevich. His attention was attracted balloon, is in the Vladivostok fortress aeronautical company. Acquainted with the officers of the company, Nesterov suggested the use of the balloon as an observation point for the adjustment of artillery fire. He has made a temporary secondment to the observation station vozduhovlavatelnogo park and as a gunner - the observer has been raised repeatedly in a balloon. However, ballooning company disbanded, and Nesterov, was recalled to the team.
In 1910, not possessing a strong health Petro ill and was transferred to the Caucasus reserve artillery brigade "on climatic conditions for a period of one year". In Vladikavkaz (r. Ordzhonikidze) Nesterov met Artemije Katsanom, pilot, aviator, who constructed a glider of his own design.
"My passion for aviation began in 1910 ...- later recalled PN Nesterov. -I set myself the task to build such a machine, the movement is less than the total would depend on environmental conditions and is almost entirely subordinated to the will of the pilot. I thought that only compliance with these conditions and only such a device may enable a person to freely soar. Only then ... air of amusement and sport will become a lasting and useful acquisition of mankind ".
At that time, the Russian pilots were flying mostly in French machinery. Patriotic feeling offended Nesterova idea that the Tsarist military department has set in dependence on foreign firms aircraft. However, the project was rejected by the main Nesterova Engineer's Office. This is not cooled the ardor of persistent Lieutenant. His decision to become a pilot and designer only strengthened. Zhukovsky - Pyotr Petrovich Sokolov, and soon became a member of the Nizhny Novgorod Society for Aeronautics. In the shed at the refreshment Sokolov Street friends built a sailplane. Mother of Peter Nikolaevich supported the son's passion and helped sew lining to the glider.
For the tests chosen field for Peter and the cemetery (in the present streets of Belinsky and Nevzorovs). Launched glider with a horse. In the cart sat Sokolov, holding a rope tied to the glider. The horse ran away, and the vehicle, picking up speed, with test pilot took off in the 2-3 meters. "Nizhny Novgorod leaf" 3 August 1911, Mr.. noted that "the test has proved very successful".
This flight is the beginning of flight activity PN Nesterov. Subsequently, the pilot himself said: "It's nice to remember my experiments with gliders and general aviation beginning of my practice in the H [izhegorodskom) O [bschestve] aeronautics". Thus P.N. Nesterov as the pilot took place in his homeland. Here he is with the PN Sokolov, and Nizhny Novgorod Society for Aeronautics has developed a draft of its second aircraft.
October 7, 1911, Mr.. P.N. Nesterov arrives in St. Petersburg officer aeronautical school. Simultaneously, he was assigned to the aviation department of the same school. For eleven months, relying on training, Nesterov managed to achieve much.
Man seeking, a patriot, sincerely cares for the success of domestic aviation, he was not satisfied with the modern methods of piloting. Nesterovsky the idea of turning an airplane with a roll, not to mention his statements that the aircraft can do in the air "loop the loop", not only designers, but also comrades believed madness. This inertia and conservatism can be overcome only in practice.
Even during training, Aug. 18, 1912, Nesterov took thirteen training flight in a balloon, flying 750 miles. The flight was at an altitude of 3400 meters. This was a major achievement of national aeronautics.
His first independent flight on a plane Nesterov undertook 12 September of the same in 1912. After 16 days, he successfully passed the examination for pilot-aviator, and a week later - on the title of a military pilot.
As part of the aviation detachment P.N. Nesterov was transferred from St. Petersburg to Warsaw, where in November 1912 started training flights in combat "Nieuport" and established itself as an experimental pilot. For example, during one of his flights, he scored a height of 1600 meters (that has been the achievement) and turning off the engine, circles, eights glided over Warsaw than "led his comrades in awe".
Old canons of piloting them repeatedly violated. Nesterovskaya planning system to shut off the engine and exceptional composure have helped him on Jan. 25, 1913, Mr.. avoid death, when during a routine flight caught fire gasoline in the carburetor and the engine stopped. This is most clearly demonstrate the superiority of the pilots and the bosses of the new method of aircraft control. His first in the world to find the technique to maneuver monoplane in the horizontal plane, and research in the implementation of the bends forced to muffle the doubts of skeptics. It and the first recognition. In the characterization of January 1913. said: "Petr Nesterov: pilot outstanding. Technically produced excellent. Energetic and disciplined. Moral qualities are very good ... "
In May 1913. PN Nesterov was appointed to the aviation unit, formed in Kiev, with secondment to the 7 th aeronautical company. Days and the case began a military pilot, who brought him worldwide fame. In June he was transferred to the 11 th Corps detachment of the 3rd Aviation Company. Here he is acting chief, to ensure that pilots are perfectly aware of the material plane. The pilots were engaged to compile PN Nesterov Program.
Talent pilot and a military specialist P.N. Nesterova especially manifested during the first in Russia joint exercises, aircraft and artillery. There have been many discoveries that have been successfully used later by Soviet pilots.
At that time, excited the world record long flights. I thought the pilot was ripe to make such a flight in the squad without any preparation in conditions as close as possible to combat. The flight was conducted on 10-11 August 1913, consisting of three aircraft on the route Kiev-Oster-Kozelec-Nizhin-Kiev. He was regarded as a new word in military practice. In Nesterovskoye experiment involved another Nizhegorodets - a graduate of the Cadet Corps VM. Tkachev. Long-distance flights were carried Nesterov subsequently two more times, one of them was a record - for one day from Kiev to Gatchina.
The pilot could not rest on our laurels, his inquisitive mind worked intensively. Pyotr trained to improve the pilot, in working out steep turns, ready to implement the "loop the loop". Assailed by doubts in the reliability of the aircraft structure, and most importantly - will it be clear and understandable experiment comrades in arms. And then came the determination. August 27, 1913, Mr.. Nesterovsky "Nieuport" again soared into the sky. Once at altitude 800-1000 meters, the pilot, according to reports to the administration, turned off the engine and began to dive. At an altitude of about 600 meters of the motor was switched on, and the plane, obeying sure hands the pilot flew straight up, then on his back, described the loop and went into a dive. Motor shut down, the plane straightened up and smooth, beautiful spiral landed safely.
Feat PN Nesterov stirred the whole world. Many enthusiastic sent telegrams. From Nizhny Novgorod Head Cadet Corps telegraphed: "Body enthusiastically welcomed his glorious pet brilliant success in the pride of Russian Aviation". Kyiv Aeronautics Society Nesterov awarded the gold medal. But the military authorities were opposed to "dead loop".
Himself as the pilot was confident that "aerobatics - a school of pilot". Despite the ban, Nesterov 31 March 1914, Mr.. repeated "loop the loop".
PN Nesterov continued to fly, participated in the maneuvers, was promoted to captain, was appointed chief of the aviation detachment. Records continued. In the military maneuvers in September 1913 PN Nesterov performed the world's first air attacks. He practiced takeoffs and landings in the dark, . developed the use of acetylene in the spotlights monoplanes for a night of exploration, . had the idea of restructuring the tail assembly in the form of "dovetail", . wanted to retire and devote himself entirely to design aircraft,
. But in June 1914. war broke.
Clearly understand the nature of the imperialist war, PN Nesterov Yet as the officer was supposed to fulfill their duty to the Motherland. Among other things, before it opened up opportunities in combat conditions to test long-cherished idea. War experience has confirmed the correctness of many of them. He was in combat conditions continued to improve tactics for night reconnaissance, . searching for new ways to combat use of air, . carried out bombing, . yes so effectively, . that the Austrian commanders promised a large cash reward to, . who sobet airplane Nesterova,
. Russian pilot defended the idea of possibility and necessity of air combat, which, due to lack of time on the aircraft gun, he saw a battering ram, while the enemy must be hit by the car hit the top. Soon Nesterov implemented this method in practice.
August 26, 1914 famous ace the last time against the enemy bravely raised their "morals". Small monoplane Nesterov tracked down and caught more powerful in size and speed "albatross" of the enemy. Witness battering ram wrote: "Nesterov came from behind, overtook the enemy and, as a falcon strikes awkward heron, and he hit the enemy". Unwieldy "Albatross" continued to fly for a while, then fell on his left side and plummeted. Not escaped and PN Nesterov.
He was buried in Kiev.