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Alexander Galich

( Director)

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Biography Alexander Galich
photo Alexander Galich
Alexander Galich was born October 19, 1918 in the city Yekaterynoslav (now Dnepropetrovsk) in the family of employees. His father - Arkady Samoilovich Ginsburg - an economist, mother-Fanny B. Wexler, worked at the Conservatory. She was an artistic nature - fond of the theater, . learn music, . most hobbies Fanny Borisovny then passed on to her children - Alexander and Valeria (the latter will be known cinematographer, . would make a film "Soldier Ivan Brovkin", . "When the trees were big", . "He lives a guy", etc.).,

. Immediately after the birth of the firstborn of Ginzburg's family moved to Sebastopol, which lived nearly five years
. In 1923 they moved to Moscow, one of the houses in the Krivokolennyi Lane. Three years later, Alexander went to high school BONO-24.

. He remembers the younger brother of Alexander Valery: "The world Krivokolennyi alley was closed, I seem to be unaware of what was happening outside, but with a sense of ownership that seems to be the unknown was not surprising
. We have all the yard, adults and children, saw the rise of the balloon - a spectacle in itself represents nothing but a sense of ownership event created a kind of "aura" natural community, or what?. Early Krivokolennyi, almost at the corner of Butcher Street, was cabrank, but close - two boilers for boiling asphalt. They were sleeping street children in the warmth. We, the novice, happily sang a song about "Finnish Knife" or a ditty: "When Stalin was married, black bread canceled, and it seemed to us that we are attached to their freedom of Street Children. We studied in a former gymnasium in Kolpatchniy Lane, lessons for us to start with twelve hours, and we sat on the floor, waiting for the senior classes are released, all singing ...
. All the boys of our yard to know that we live in the house of the poet Dmitry Venevitinov, where Pushkin first read the "Godunov"
. We did not know poetry Venevitinov not yet know how to read, but Pushkin's Boris Godunov "- it was clear to us. Comprehensible than ditties and bawdy songs ...
Our house in Krivokolennyi was hectic, endless guests, always someone sleeping out visiting, and my father and my mother worked. They were not in office work, so work was not regulated, t. e. took much more than the normal working day, communicating with them in childhood was not enough, the closeness came later ... "

. Thanks to Alexander mother at an early age began to get involved in creative work - from five years he learned to play the piano, writing poetry
. In the eight years he was engaged in a literary circle, which was led by the poet Edward Bagritsky. At school, Alexander studied at the "excellent" and was everyone's favorite - except the beautiful game on the piano, he was well danced, sang revolutionary songs and recited poems. In 14 years, which saw his first poetry publication. In June 1934, Ginsburg moved to Malaya Bronnaya.

After graduating from the ninth grade ten-year, Alexander submits documents to the Literary Institute and to the surprise of many, comes. However, the insatiable young man is not enough, and he in those days shall submit the documents are in one institution - opera, drama studios. S. Stanislavsky, the drama department. And once again, to the surprise of family and friends, he passed. Later, when combine studies in both high schools will be unbearable, Alexander prefers the theater and walk away from the Literary Institute. However, in Opera-dramatic studio he stayed only three years and leave her, never received a diploma. And the reason for the withdrawal from the studio will serve as a grievance. One of the trainers studio, People's Artist of L. Leonids, once gave him to familiarize his own business. And there, . among other, . Alexander read the words, . written by hand Leonidova: "This must be taken! actor will not pour out, . but something will always "Junior the Studio this phrase grazed, . and he went to the newly opened studio under the direction of Alexei Arbuzov,
. It is autumn 1939. And in February next year, her debut studio performance of "City at dawn."

The play "The City at dawn" was shown a few times - then the war started. Most of the Studio went to the front, and Alexander the reserve - the doctors discovered he had congenital heart disease. But in Moscow, he still does not delay - sitting in a geological expedition, sent to the south. But further Grozny they were not allowed.

. It was in those days in Grozny is born theater folk heroic and revolutionary satire (the first steps on the professional stage actors in it did, who subsequently became popularly known: Sergei Bondarchuk, Mahmoud Esambayev)
. By chance, becomes a party to the collective and Alexander Ginzburg.

However, in the Grozny theater folk heroics Alexander worked for a short time - until December. After he learned that the city of Chirchik near Tashkent director Valentin Pluchek collects arbuzovskih the Studio, he left Grozny.

. In Chirchiq settled and personal life of Alexander, he fell in love with a young Muscovite, actress Valentina Arkhangelsk (she was the secretary of the Komsomol organization of the theater, and Galich - her deputy)
. Young collected in the same sign, but unforeseen circumstances prevented them from doing so. Once they boarded the bus and went to the registry office. The suitcase with the documents they are nestled near the feet, while they themselves began to kiss. This lasted all the way, and when young came around and came out, they suddenly discovered that the suitcase had not tried-local thieves. Venture with the registrar's office had to be postponed until better times. A year later, was born a daughter named Alena.

Mobile Theater under the direction Pluchek and Arbuzov, which played Alexander and Valentina, the wheels on the fronts. Alexander played in it at several angles: the actor, playwright, poet and composer. But then in the theater (he was already based in Moscow) a conflict between its founders - Arbuzov and Pluchek. On the side of the first got almost the entire team, as Pluchek was reported in a letter. And only Ginsburg made it a postscript, that the decision does not agree. Later he says: "It was pure nonsense-theater without Pluchek. Arbuzov still not the director! "But Pluchek of the theater is gone, and he soon fell apart.

In 1944, his wife Alexandra had gone to Irkutsk - to work in local theater. Later, with her daughter for her was to go and Alexander (he promised a place zavlita), but fate had its own way. His mother suddenly stated that "would not carry the child to" Siberia ", and forbade his son to leave Moscow. And he listened. Either because they are too afraid of the mother, whether due to cooling of the wife. Valentine also was informed that if she wants to live with his family, let them immediately returned to Moscow - to her husband and child (mother in law even promised at first to help them with money). However, she judged on its own and stayed in Irkutsk. It broke the first marriage of Alexander Ginzburg, who soon took his pen name Galich (formed by connecting letters from different syllables the first, middle and last names - Alexander Ginzburg Arkadevich).

. In the spring of 1945 in the life of Galich a new love
. Her name was Angelina Shekrot (Prokhorov). She was the daughter of Brigadier Commissioner and in those years, she studied at the Faculty of VGIK scenario. Before Galic she has already several times to fall in love (there were rumors about her affair with a beautiful aspiring filmmaker), and even marry orderly own father. In this marriage she had a daughter, Galia (in 1942). But at the very beginning of the war her husband was missing, and Angelina left a widow. A 45-m in her life came Galich. Here writes H. Miloserdova: "Their wedding night was shifted to the ironing board in the bathroom in the house of their friend Yuri Nagibina. Anya was a thin, refined, with long, fragile fingers. Galich called her Nyushkoy. Even she had a nickname - Plywood Milo. She was everything to him - his wife, mistress, nurse, secretary, editor. Anya did not require Galic loyalty, the state's love for him was the natural creative stimulant, nothing to do with their love. He babnikov in the poetic sense of the word. Niusha it is not jealous of her husband's novels treated with irony. For example, once "outraged": "right to chose kustodievsko Rubens-type, one can understand. But another passion - the same "plywood". And she decided to "influence" on the lady, caught up with them, assembled "walk", and long cram husband different medications, carefully instructing the lady, in which case that applied. It did not help, the lady guessed her move: "Niusha, give another enema and a chamber pot, so quickly, but we do not have time to admire the sunset."

. In 1945, Galich attempted to overpower higher education (as I recall, before the war, he failed to do so - in the studio Stanislavski diploma he was not given)
. At this time Galitch decided not to get a theatrical education, and some strong humanitarian and special. And his choice fell on the Higher Diplomatic School. However, there awaited him serious "fiasco". When Galich come to school and asked the secretary if he could submit an application, she gave him a haughty look and said: "No, you can not apply in our institution". - "Why?" - Sincerely was surprised Galich. "Because of your nationality, we all in this school will not accept. There is such an indication.

Lack of diploma did not prevent Galich a couple of years after the unfortunate incident in the All-Union VDSH gain fame. She came to him as a talented playwright. In Leningrad, saw the premiere of his play "The marching march". Song from the play, also written by Galich - "Goodbye, Mama, Do not Cry" - became almost hit the All-Union. A little later, took another triumphant premiere of creation Galich (in collaboration with the playwright to. Isaev) - the comedy "You is Taimyr.

In the early 50's Galich was already a successful playwright, author of several plays, which are a huge success came in many theaters in the country. Among them, an hour before dawn, "" The boat is called "Eaglet", "How many people have", etc.. In 1954 film "True Friends", filmed on the script Galic (and his constant collaborator K. Isaeva), won at the box office 7 th place, having collected 30.9 million. spectators.

In 1955, Galic admitted to the Union of Soviet Writers, and three years later, and the Union of Cinematographers. In 1956, the Theater-Studio of the Moscow Art Theater (which later became the theater of "Contemporary") decides to open the season two premieres, including play by Galic "Sailor's Silence" (he wrote it right after the war). The plot could be summarized in few words. Old shtetl Jew, Abraham Schwartz dreams that his son David became a famous violinist. But the war is destroying his dreams. Abram himself killed in the ghetto, and David goes to the front, and is killed. But others are still living: David's wife, his son, their friends. In the play were busy then no one well-known actors: Oleg Efremov, Oleg Tabakov, Igor Kvasha, Evgeni Evstigneev. However, before the premiere, it never came. At the dress rehearsal was attended by several officials and civil servants from the Ministry of Culture, . and one of them suddenly issued its summary of what he saw: "It is all fake!" Not a word of truth! " In response to this remark to be here as Galich could not resist, . jumped up and said loudly: "Fool!" This debate is over what he saw.,

. Despite this incident, Galich was still one of the most successful playwrights
. In theaters continued to go on the performances of his plays, directors made films on his scenarios. For example, . future п¦п+п+п¦п¦пTп+пЁя-п¦яL Leonid Gaidai started out with a movie it works Galic - first he took off his short film "In the Steppe", . and in 1960 saw the light of the film "Three times the resurrected", . created on the basis of the play Galic "The ship is called" Eaglet ",
. However, in spite of a constellation of names, collected in the picture, Alla Larionova, Vsevolod Sanaev, Hope Rumyantsev, Konstantin Sorokin, Nina Grebeshkova - the film received a bad egg.

. In the first half of the 60's commonwealth Galic with film develops more successfully
. In the spring of 1960 from the Union of Cinematographers he visited with a delegation from Sweden and Norway.

Scenarios Galic, who came out in those years from his tireless pen, immediately snapped up by the directors. And the genres in which he worked Galich, were completely different. For example, in the war drama "In the seven winds, removed in 1962, Stanislav Rostotsky, narrated about love, scorched by war, in the comedy" Give plaintive book "(dir. Eldar Ryazanov) - about an adventurous girl-director of the restaurant, in the detective thriller "State offender (dir. Nicholas Rozantsev) - the capture of a dangerous criminal by the KGB, responsible for the deaths of hundreds of people during the Great Patriotic War (for this work Galich was awarded the KGB) in the biographical drama "A third youth" (dir. ZH. Drevil) - about the great Russian choreographer Marius Petipa.

Meanwhile, under the outward prosperity Galic hiding some mental disorder, which he often poured vodka. On this ground in 1962, he suffered a first heart attack. But even after this "call" Galich not good-bye to "green snake". At the joint sitting, which he and his wife attended in those years in the homes of his colleagues, he managed to get drunk, even under the vigilant eye of his Nyusha. That often complained to friends: "I want to die in the bathroom, but I'm afraid to move away, Sasha immediately poured, it queer, but he can not, he has a heart!"

. In the early 60's in Galicia suddenly wakes bard satirist, and to light one after another, there are songs that are due to tape recordings instantly became popular
. The first song of this cycle was "Helen" (about a girl, police officer, which falls some overseas Shah), written by Galich sleepless night in the train Moscow - Leningrad in 1962

. Chronologically, the cycle magnitizdatskih songs Galich began "Lena", after which there were also other verses of his songs
. Among them are "artisanal valsok", "The horse was angina pectoris", "Tonya", "Red Triangle", "Ave Maria", "Karaganda", "Night Watch", "In memory of Pasternak's" The Ballad of Korczak, "" On the Hills of Manchuria "," flying duck ", etc.. However, his work has developed as if the two channels: on the one hand, and major lyrical pathos in the drama (a play about the Communists, the scenarios of Chekists), on the other - a shrill, angry sadness in the songs. This duality of many annoyed. When the first Galich sang several songs at a rally satirical amateur songs Petushki, many participants in the rally accused him of insincerity and duplicity.

Meanwhile, the glory of Galich-bard continues to grow. In March 1968 he was invited to the festival of song poetry in Novosibirsk Akademgorodok "Bard-68". This festival has caused an unprecedented sell-out. Under him was allocated the most extensive of the halls of the Palace of physicists under the name "Integral", and the hall was packed to overflowing, people even stood in the aisles. The front seats were members of the festival jury.

Galich began with the song "keep silent", which set the tone for the whole presentation ( "not say anything - you get into executioners"). When a few minutes later he sang "In memory of Pasternak, the whole audience rose from their seats and stood in silence for a while, then burst into applause thunder. Galich receives a prize, a silver copy of Pushkin's pen, with a diploma of the Siberian Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, in which it is written: "We admire not only your talent but your courage ..."

. In August of that year, stunned the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, he wrote no less "seditious" thing than "In memory of Pasternak's" - "St. Petersburg Romance
. But this time the "bell" sounded much closer - right under Galic. He was summoned to the secretariat of the Union of Writers and made the first serious warning: they say, watch your repertoire. Oxygen he had not yet blocked. In those days, Galich was swamped with work: with Mark Donskoy, wrote a screenplay about Chaliapin, with Yakov Seguela are released film "The latest shot, getting ready for filming on the television musical" I can do wonders ". However, in parallel with this continues to write songs Galich. And although his wife almost did not require him to be prudent, at any time terminate the statement, Galich can not stop. For him, a man drinking (later in the metropolitan coterie will be rumors about drug addiction Galich), home feast - the only way to somehow drained. Apparently aware of this and the charter fight, his wife asks him not to allow themselves to record on tape. Galich gives a word, but this promise was not kept. Recordings from home concerts Galic continue to spread throughout the country. One of these entries is for Galic fatal.

In the early 70's the daughter of a Politburo member Dmitry Polyansky married actor Taganka Theater Ivan Dykhovichnyi. After a feast of noisy young people, naturally, was fun - first dance, then listen magnitizdat: Vysotsky, Galich. In some of the moments of the youth suddenly joined the company and the father of the bride. Prior to that, strangely enough, he never heard the songs of Galich, and then listen ... and troubled. Almost the next day he raised the issue of "anti-Soviet songs" Galic on the Politburo, and the wheel spun. Galich was reminded of all: his speech in the campus, and access to the West (in the planted ") collection of his songs, and much more, on the authorities from time to time turned a blind eye. December 29, 1971 Galic was summoned to the secretariat of the Writers' Union - ruled. Here's how he remembered it: "I came to the secretariat, where a massacre took place, which lasted three hours, where all were - so it should be, it is the law of thieves - all must be in plaster, and everybody should make sure, all in a circle. ..
. There were only four people who voted against my expulsion
. Valentin Petrovich Kataev, Agnes Barto - poet, prose writer and playwright Rekemchuk Alexei Arbuzov, - they voted against my expulsion, for a reprimand. Although Arbuzov behaved unusually vile (and us with him, many years of joint work), he said that I was, of course, must be excluded, but here all those years did not give him the right and opportunity to raise his hand over my expulsion. There is. They voted against. Then they were told that no, wait, stay. We peregolosovyvat. We will now tell you something, what you do not know. Well, they pricked up their ears, they have already decided - now they will present a detective story, as I have somewhere, in some hollow hiding any secret documents received for this currency, and furs, but ... they were told one single, so to speak, they discovered:
- You obviously do not know - told them - they requested that the decision was unanimous.
Here are all the additional information that they received. Well, if they ask, then, as they say in the Soviet Union, the request of the authorities must comply with smb. The request was disregarded, voted, and all have been for my expulsion. Here's how it happened ... "

Barely six weeks after the exclusion Galic from the Writers Union, as it struck a new blow. February 17, 1972 it as quietly expelled from the Union of Cinematographers. This happened quite casually. On the day of the meeting was given to SC 14 questions on the problems of the Uzbek cinema and one (c7) - exclusion of Galich the letter of the Union of Soviet Writers. Galich was expelled almost unanimously.

Following these events, the situation became catastrophic Galic. More recently he was considered one of the most successful authors in the country, getting decent money through VAAP who heartily spent in expensive restaurants and foreign voyage. Now all this has disappeared overnight. Automatically terminate all rehearsals, be removed from the repertoire of performances, films started production of frozen. Had no means of livelihood Galich had set off at all serious - he was quietly selling off its extensive library, literary moonlight "Negro" (wrote for someone scenarios), gives the toll house concerts (of 3 rubles per entry). But the money - given that the Galich had to feed not only himself and his wife, and two moms and son Grisha (born in 1967 on the relationship with Costume designer studios Gorky Sophia Voitenko) - still not enough. All the trouble, of course, affect the health of Galich. In April 72 th in his third heart attack happens. Because of litfondovskoy hospital excommunicated him, friends parked it in some shabby clinic. Doctors put him second disability group, which ensured his pension ... 60 rubles.

In general, all the following, after the exclusion of all the Unions Galic events clearly showed that he was not quite ready for them. Such reprisals against him, he obviously did not expect. Although this is something and it was strange. After all, writing his openly anti-party songs, he should realize that playing with fire.

Meanwhile, the whole in 1973 the authorities pushed Galina to the fact that he left the USSR. But he stoically resisted.

However, the forces were not unlimited Galic. In 1974 he went abroad, his second book of songs called "Generation of the doomed", which served as a new signal for the attack on Galic by authorities. When in the same year he was invited to Norway for a seminar on the works of Stanislavsky, OVIR refused him a visa. He said: "Why do you need a visa? Take permanently". It KGB operative has promised to legalize all documents for departure. And Galich surrendered. June 20, he received the documents to leave and a plane ticket, dated June 25.

Alexander Galich

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