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Khanzhonkov Alexander

( Director)

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Biography Khanzhonkov Alexander
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Yes, . pay tribute to him in passing, . called "cultural entrepreneur-wing" and then "hung all the dogs! God! It is his firm, . has made the most drama of Russian classics in pre-revolutionary cinema, and never produce films "Paris of the genre" (ie,
. pornographic), it is written: "Through dozens fabricated most vulgar melodrama. Historical films "Defense of Sevastopol", "1812" called chauvinistic. Under the suspicion of his "participation in political life in 1917, and going abroad," explains not only the state of health ". But he, unlike other kinofabrikantov - Drankov, Ermoleva, Tim, - returned home in 1923. He was invited to work in joint-stock company "Rusfilm". Sam Commissar of Education Lunacharsky sent a congratulatory telegram.

That happened a few years later, it is better not to remember ... Yet Alexander is not sorry about a life lived. He remembers how it was ...

Alexander Khanzhonkov - prosperous Russian officer from the old, respected but impoverished Cossack kind. One of his ancestors met with Pushkin in 1829, when the poet traveled to Arzrum.

In 1905, the 27-year-old Khanzhonkov wandered into the "biographer" - so at that time called the cinema, without thinking, without wondering what comes to meet his fate. The train sped on the screen directly to the audience, nervously shouting lady - was something to fear, fear! And here is the piece de resistance - "Grinder". Cook decided to sharpen a knife, but her stern led grinder in such horror that he rushed heels, sweeping away everything in its path ... 30-minute session ended, started his career as moviemaker Khanzhonkov. He got sick motion picture.

Initial capital was not, but Alexander knew that, going into retirement, will get the reverse - the amount of 5000 rubles, which protect the family of Cossack officer. Khanzhonkov finds a companion, and at first the company has successfully engaged in brokering, buying films abroad for distribution in Russia. The cost of painting in those days depended on its length - purchased as sitchik, meters. Price per meter of the film ranged from 45 to 75 cents. But with the American party pictures it almost ended in collapse. Films were useless quality, and procured projection cinecameras creaked as baggage carts with wheels unlubricated. It seemed that "crafty" whispered Khanzhonkov: Yes you throw it all to hell! The temptation was great, but Alexander did not give up - got into debt, got a new companions, and again rushed into the fray!

. Everything was once again, everything had to invent, try, err ..
. Khanzhonkov even tried to change the fate of black and white я│п╦п╫п╣п╪п╟я┌п╬пЁя─п╟я└п╟. After hiring a miniature painter of the Stroganov school, he asked her to paint the scene of fighting cocks right on tape. Alas, the paint flow, drawing, losing contours transformed into a color blot ... But despite the setbacks, the laboratory has expanded, the Russian inscription in the frame is not slid over the frame, not treated in tatters.

. And then came the moment when Khanzhonkov decided to shoot their own movies.

. Outside Moscow pitched his tent encampment of Gypsies
. This led to the idea Khanzhonkov plot to remove the film "Drama in the Roma encampment near Moscow". The scenario was all that was needed: fatal love, the passion for gambling, blood revenge and gypsy dance. But what it means to work with non-professionals! You never know what to expect of them ... Soon earned camera, a gypsy couple "stiff", with a sidelong glance, like a fire-breathing dragon on, on a movie camera. Before dances never took ...

In 1908, for service in the company Khanzhonkov turns screenwriter and film director Vasily M. Goncharov, remarkable personality. Imagine a railroad employee in 44 пЁп╬п╢п╟ cinematic fever picks up the virus and, wringing her quite prosperous life, goes to Moscow and then in Paris, in order to grasp the secrets of filmmaking. "The first Russian producer of historical paintings for the motion picture" - "modestly" introduced himself Goncharov Khanzhonkov. But what he saw Alexander on the set of pictures of "Russian wedding in the XVII century, has led him to the horror. Wonderful theater actors become puppets taut. Directed with a stopwatch in hand put the "knights of parents" at one end of the stage, Suite - in other. By stentorian ryku Goncharova: "Bless!" - "Young" rushed to "parents", fell at their feet scalded and how rushed back to his corner. Khanzhonkov had to explain razobizhennomu "classics" and the actors that their movement on the screen should be completely natural ...

. TODAY FROM AFAR many pictures of pre-revolutionary cinema may seem childish prattle, our sophisticated view sees loose cardboard scenery, then crudely painted on the backdrop
. In the movie "Ermak Timofeevich - conqueror of Siberia" on their feet "killed" Tartar were seen galoshes on his nose "Cossack" treacherously flashed his pince-nez. But the baby-cinema grew by leaps and bounds. Already in 1911 the company Khanzhonkov "on the highest assent" withdrew incredibly difficult for those days now "Defense of Sevastopol" with full-scale battle scenes, . set by Alexander K Khanzhonkov come great directors: P,
. Chardynin and E. Bauer, actors that have become legends of cinema: Ivan Mozzhukhin and Witold Polonsky. "Stars" of the Russian cinema through participation in the company's films have become a ballerina Vera Karalli and has no acting education Vera Cold. From 1909 to 1912 Khanzhonkov produces an average of 8.10 movies per year, and in 1913 - twenty. These include not only the gaming picture. The company began to withdraw, as we just said, non-fiction films, which produced no income, but also contributed to the cause of education: "The electric telegraph," "steam", "Eye". Ribbon "Alcoholism and its consequences" enjoyed unprecedented success for a documentary film. Documentary frames captured seriously ill children of alcoholics, interspersed with game scenes. Mozzhukhin depicted human dopivshegosya to delirium tremens: getting out of unfinished bottles devil, taunting "alcoholics". Devil invented and made the move recently entered the service of Khanzhonkov Vladislav Starevich.

... From a newspaper article Khanzhonkov learns that the town of Vilna, a young officer in. Starevich three years in a row takes the first prize for matting made from spikes and costumes for Christmas masquerades. Khanzhonkov immediately invited him to Moscow for talks. Ingenious self-taught (Starevich was an excellent artist, he learned the art of photography and camera) makes a Khanzhonkov the world's first animated film by volume "Beautiful Lyukanida" or "War of stag with barbel". Figures of insects have been made with such skill that many have decided that in the movie were filmed live, somehow magically, well-behaved beetles.

. ANNUAL PROFIT COMPANY Khanzhonkov to the beginning of World War exceeded 150 000 rubles.

. Khanzhonkov not talk, but did point
. He never uttered fiery speeches about the good of the Fatherland, but once it "burst": "... I have led the firm ... struggled with hack and immorality against all this foreign flavor. I've always been proud to lead the country in our proizvo1915 year Khanzhonkov in his memoirs called "black". Oldest died suddenly the director of his firm VM. Goncharov. Yet Alexander did not notice (or do not want to notice?) Clouds gathered over him. Manufacturer Khanzhonkov thriving, regularly leaves his journal Journal of Cinematography, which opened in 1913 on Triumph Square Cinema is the most prestigious and popular in Moscow. But ... The disease is whether the cause or drastically changed environment film market after the First World War (foreign films almost never come to Russia), unexpectedly Khanzhonkov becomes vulnerable to competitors. From beginning to leave his people, one after another, leaving it the leading directors: Mikhin, Starevich, Chardynin. During the years of joint work grievances, but Khanzhonkov, loyal to his rule of non-interference in the creative process, not extinguish the spark conflict flares up. Competitors Alexei Alexandrovich made bets on the "stars" by offering fabulous fees. A Khanzhonkov to any would not agree to raise wages leading actor. As a result, cold and Polonsky go to the firm D. Kharitonov, Mozzhukhin - to and. Ermolevu. Khanzhonkov transfer a case in Moscow, his wife Antonina Nikolaevna, and he is establishing a crew base in Yalta. Together with his faithful E. Bauer, they are going to shoot a new film. The unexpected death of director in 1917 crippled Khanzhonkov. Collapsed not only the firm, collapsed life, broken by the revolution and civil war. Yalta then goes to red, then to white, then to the Germans. A stubborn Khanzhonkov making films ... Antonina Nikolaevna with children miraculously gets to Yalta, and the family in 1920 left Russia.

... ALEXANDER A. was covered EYES. His torments question, which of course he never said aloud: "Should it be torn back home?" Society Rusfilm "almost immediately ceased to exist. Since 1925 Khanzhonkov works zavproizvodstvom in JSC Proletkin, but within a year is under court. The official reason - financial abuse, but it's probably an excuse to crack down on the old "Spice". For lack of proof of guilt Khanzhonkov release. (According to other sources, he nevertheless was convicted, sentenced to 6 months imprisonment, but granted amnesty to the deprivation of electoral rights.) To arrange for work to Alexei Alexandrovich did not. Who needs a person with disabilities, "lishenets", this "not quite dead sedentary type"? Together with his second wife (Antonina Nikolaevna died in exile) Vera Dmitriyevna Khanzhonkov returned to Yalta. After humiliating his petitions to restore the rights and smilostivshis on disability, was appointed personal pension. In 1941 the Germans occupied the Yalta. Khanzhonkov live to Victory Day. But the fate measured out to him just five months. September 26, 1945 at the age of 68 years Alexander died.

Alexander Khanzhonkov

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