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Archimedes (Archimedes)

( Greek scholar)

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Biography Archimedes (Archimedes)
Archimedes, Archimedes, of Syracuse, c.. 287-212 years. BC. e., Greek scholar. The son of an astronomer Feydeau, was friendly with the king of Syracuse Hieron II and his son Gelon. For some time he lived in Alexandria, brought familiarity with the astronomer of Samos and Kononov Eratosphen. In Syracuse was at the court of Hieron II scholar advisor king. A. Technological inventions were probably created for the defense of Syracuse during the Roman siege. During the storming of the city (212 g.) A. perished at the hands of the Roman soldier. On his tombstone, in accordance with his wishes, was knocked figure, representing the ball inscribed in a cylinder. He reminded them of the landmark discoveries of that volume of the sphere is 2 / 3 the volume of the cylinder. - Sam A. appreciated only their theoretical work, . but the glory of his contemporaries and successors brought him much of his practical inventions: pulleys, . winch and lever, . principle of action which he reflected in the paradoxical aphorism: "Give me a fulcrum, . and I will turn the Earth ", . so-called screw A., . often used in Egypt during the floods, . military vehicles, and others; He also built a planetarium, . Exported conqueror of Syracuse, Mark Claudius Marcellus in Rome, . whom he admired Cicero,
. The results of theoretical research in the field of geometry, arithmetic, mechanics, hydrostatics, and optics were presented in the works, most of whom wore the innovative nature.

Of the surviving works of A. Equilibrium of planes (Epipedon issorhopiai) in 2 books of essay is static and is concentrated around the equilibrium conditions of the two forces acting on the lever, as well as the calculation of the various centers of gravity of plane figures. In this paper, a segment of the quadrature of the parabola (Tetragonismos paraboles) he decides to questions from the field of modern integral calculus. In his treatise On the sphere and cylinder (Peri sphairas kai kylindru) in 2 books, describes methods for calculating the surface and volume of a sphere, cylinder, cone, truncated cone, etc.. On the worm wheels (Peri helikon) - describes the properties of the so-called helix A. On the shapes of rotation (Peri konoeideon kai sphairoeideon) describes a method for calculating the volume of figures of rotation. The writing is on the floating bodies (Peri ton ochumenon), which discusses the problem of hydrostatics, contains the famous statement: a body immersed in a fluid, displaces the amount of fluid equal to its scope. Treatise Measurement range (Kyklu metresis) calculation of the approximate value of p:

. 31 / 7> p> 310/71

. Composition Number of grains (Psammites) contains an original system of expressing very large numbers, incidentally setting out information about the heliocentric system of Aristarchus of Samos
. "Cow" issue (Problema boeikon) - the only poetic work A., born mathematical puzzles in distihah (counting multi-colored herds of Helios). The found only in 1906. on Eratosphen treatise on the method (Pros Eratosphenen ephodos) reveals the "mechanical" ways in which A. comes to theoretical claims. There described method is based on the assumption that the body represents the sum of their planar sections, and similar to modern integral calculus. A. had an enormous influence on posterity: this is evidenced by the numerous comments and to date, the terms used: spiral, A., A. axiom, the law of A. He also considered the father of theoretical physics.

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