Aristophanes (Aristophanes)( Greek ï¦ï+ï+ï¦ï¦ïTï+ï¨ÿ-ï¦ÿL)
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Biography Aristophanes (Aristophanes)
Aristophanes, Aristophanes, ca. 445-OK. 385 years. BC, Greek ï¦ï+ï+ï¦ï¦ïTï+ï¨ÿ-ï¦ÿL, born in Athens. His father Philip was not very prosperous farmer, to catch small pieces of land on Heghine as a colonist, probably at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War. A. get a good enough education in Athens. - Approximately 17 years he wrote poetry and composed music. Written by more than 45 comedies: we know all the names and dates of most of the performances, entirely preserved 11 pieces. Some comedy A. reworked and placed second, so it is difficult to pinpoint their number. A., third in the constellation of the great representatives staroatticheskoy comedy (after Kratin and EUPOL), are associated in antiquity with the third great tragedian Euripides was the most popular, it is mostly played on stage and read. Conservative in their political beliefs, sharply attacked by some politicians, who led the Athenian democracy, but never acted against democracy itself. Attic represent the views of wealthy peasants with their worship traditions, distrust of the new, hostile to unnecessary chatter. Over the sting of satire and coarse jokes discernible in his comedies, two feelings - a deep patriotism and a sincere desire for peace.
Endowed with rich imagination and a great poetic talent from many parties choir A. created a beautiful lyrical songs. Could be put in a rebuke. negligence of building pieces and inconsistency in the development of the action, scratchy delineation of characters. His images - it only Valais. But this is a feature of all staroatticheskoy comedy, to create the products for other than we have rules and with different goals. It works on the example of A. we can observe how the plot develops gradually dramatic work by the parties of the choir. At the same time disappear direct political attacks. Comedy A., . written after 400, . we attribute to the already sredneatticheskoy comedy (current socio-political satire in it replaces the universal human themes, . some authors present the parody of the myth) Much of the writing of A,
. falls on the period of the Peloponnesian War (431-404 gg. BC. BC.), he is interested above all the problems of war and peace, and the target of attacks in his comedies were the leaders of the Athenian state. The two earliest comedies A., of which only fragments have survived - is Piruyuschie (Daitales; post. 427), and the Babylonians (Babylonioi; post. 426 g. on Kallistrat).
In revelers 17-year-old author turns to teaching topics, speaking advocate of good old school parent, contrasting it with newfangled ideas corrupting the Sophists. Babylonians - political comedy that begins a long speech. tanner against Cleon, the leader of the Athenian democracy. A. attacks Athenian imperialism, which transforms the allies in the subjects-slaves. Acharnians (Acharnes; post. 425), the comedy, set under the name Alexander, the first, which has been preserved as a whole, is the beginning of the struggle for peace. The hero, a poor villager from Attica Dikeopol (fighter for justice), buys peace for himself. The choir, composed of miners from Aharny destroyed by enemies of the raid configured initially very violent, peaceful susceptible to persuasion. A. here also criticizes Euripides (the tragedian is often the object of attacks A., who is not just a parody of scenes tragedies of Euripides or parody quotes his poetry). Riders (Hippeis; 424) represent the final massacre of Cleon, are the sharpest political comedy A. Slaves of Mr. Demos (people) are trying to win his favor with shameless flattery and lies. Best of all it makes Paflagonets (Cleon), but is still more than capable demagogue Sausage, which receives favor Demos and overthrows Cleon. Suddenly, at the end of the play Sausage becomes a benefactor of Athens. The action is accompanied by the chorus of riders second largest class of Athenian citizens, diehard enemies of democracy. A. fighting here is not to change the social order, but a shift of people who govern for their honesty.
For such a brilliant attack on the king ordered the people of A. first prize, while not showing distrust and Cleon. Clouds (Nephelai, 423) - A. ridicules here newfangled scientific and educational system of the Sophists, Socrates presented in a comedy, in fact, did not have anything in common with the Sophists. It is noteworthy that many years later, in 399, similar charges (the demoralization of youth, infidelity), the charges against Socrates, condemned him to death. The play was the final, third prize. Later A. reworked the clouds, to maintain the option, probably represents the second version, never put on stage. Wasps (Sphekes, 422) raised Filonidom, as a satire on justice, and especially in the chicanery of the Athenians, received a second award. In the World (Eirene, 421) peasant Trygaeus on a huge beetle-beetle flies to Olympus in search of the Goddess of Peace, which then frees the support of all the Greek cities and in triumph leads to the ground.
Formulation of the comedy is only slightly ahead of the actual conclusion of the Nicene world, which, however, proved to be very short-lived. Birds (Ornithes, . 414), . most poetic comedy A., . Athenian allowed to escape from an unhappy audience of military reality in the country of pure fantasy, . exalting them to China deg Tuchekukuysk (Nephelokokkygia), . which birds, . at the instigation of two Athenians, . built themselves between the worlds of humans and gods,
. Lysistrata (411) - the first comedy to the women's theme. The wise Athenian Lysistrata, seek to conclude peace with unusual ingenuity - "strike" of women of both parties are fighting. This piece combined the characteristic staroatticheskoy comedy too free humor and serious social and political criticism. Thesmophoria (Thesmophoriazusai, 411) is also a comedy on a female subject, which raises issues not politics, and literature, mercilessly ridiculing all the weaknesses of Euripides.
Father-tragedian Mnesiloh at his request, enters the women's apparel for the holiday Thesmophoria, where the assembly of Athenian women decides to take revenge on Euripides. Revelations Mnesiloh hardly lam. Frogs (Batrochoi, 405) - again a literary comedy, one of the best works of A., the last surviving specimens staroatticheskoy Comedy. The action takes place in the underworld, which descended god Dionysus, disguised as Heracles to bring up the land of his beloved, deceased Euripides. In the underworld dispute happens, the agon between Aeschylus and Euripides, and in the end Dionysus recognizes the primacy of Aeschylus, taking into account primarily the educational value of his tragedies. Frogs are the first play with the beginnings of literary criticism. Women's Council (Ekklesiazusai, 392) - Women take part in government and impose "communism". General should be not only all the property, but also men and women. The men brought the state to decline, women want to put it a completely new order.
The play is close to the middle comedy, unlike earlier comedies A. lack of direct political attacks, and formally - limiting role of the chorus. Plutus (388) is the second play under this name (first, deceased, was placed in 408), clearly belongs to the Middle Comedy. It says on the equitable division of wealth. To achieve this, the god of wealth Plutus should be cured of blindness. This comedy does not have a clear political character, the chorus in it almost no (it replaces the musical inserts, replaceable in the appropriate places the text in a word "choir"). With its moralistic nature and always topical subject of equitable division of property is a comedy first "resurrected" in the new time. The last two have not survived comedy A. Aiolosikon and Kokalos (both at 387), were delivered to the son of a. Arar.
In the Hellenistic era and in Rome better than A. comedians felt Menander (exponent of this view was Plutarch, in his comparison of Aristophanes with Menandro which places higher than the latter), as well as the old comedy prefer new, but the creativity of a. not forgotten. As samples of pure Attic dialect product A. transcribed and read in the Byzantine era, it was at that time were created extant manuscript 11 comedies. A. gets a new life in the Renaissance, the first edition 3 comedies was published in 1498, published in 1532 all eleven. By the XVI century. are the first translations of A. The most popular Plutus and Clouds. A. had a great influence on such writers as Fielding, Rabelais, Racine, Shelley, Goethe, Heine, Mayakovsky. A. today has not lost relevance, his comedies are placed in all European countries.