Eratosthenes (Eratosthenes)( Greek writer and scholar)
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Biography Eratosthenes (Eratosthenes)
Eratosthenes; Eratosthenes, of Cyrene, III. BC. e., Greek writer and scholar. Perhaps a student of his compatriot Kallimaha; also studied in Athens with Zeno Kifeonskogo, Arkesilaya and peripatetic with Ariston of Chios. Exceptionally versatile, he studied philology, chronology, mathematics, astronomy, geography, he wrote poems. Among the mathematical works of E. should be called a work of Platonist (Platonikos), representing a kind of commentary on Timeyu Plato, which addressed issues of mathematics and music. The starting point was the socalled Delhi question, that is, a doubling cube. The geometric content of the product was on average values (Peri mesotenon) in 2 parts. In a treatise Sieve (Koskinon) E. described a simplified method to determine the first numbers (the socalled "sieve of Eratosthenes").
Saved as E. essay Transformations stars (Katasterismoi), being probably a synopsis of a larger work, linking the philological and astronomical studies, weaving them into stories and myths about the origin of the constellations. In Georafii (Geographika) in 3 books E. presented the first systematic scientific exposition of geography. He began with a review of what has been achieved Greek science in this area at that time. E. knew that Homer was a poet, so he opposed the interpretation of the Iliad and Odyssey as a treasure trove of geographic information. But he was able to appreciate the information Pytheas. Created a mathematical and physical geography. He also suggested that if the sail from Gibraltar to the west, it is possible to swim to India (this E. indirectly reached Columbus and told him the idea of his trip). E. gave his work a map of the world, which, according to Strabo, Hipparchus criticized the Nicene. In his treatise On the measurement of the Earth (Peri tes anametreseos tes ges; possibly part of Geography) on the basis of the known distance between Alexandria and Siena (sovr. Aswan), as well as the difference angle of incidence of sunlight in both areas, E. calculated the length of the equator (total: 252 thousand stadia, that is approximately 39 690 km, with a minimum calculation error, because the true length of the equator is 40 120 km). The extensive product Chronographia (Chronographiai) in 9 books E. laid the foundations of scientific history. It covered the period from the destruction of Troy (E dated. 1184/83 years. BC. e.) until the death of Alexander (323 g. BC. e.).
E. relied on the compiled list of Olympic winners and developed a precise chronological table in which all known political and cultural events are dated according to the Olympiads (ie, fouryear period between games). Chronographia E. later became the basis of chronological studies Apollodorus). The product of the ancient comedy (Peri tes archaias komodias) in 12 books were literary, linguistic and historical research and solve the problem of authenticity and dating of works. As a poet E. was the author of scientists epilionov. Hermes (Fr.), probably representing the Alexandrian version of the Homeric hymn, telling of the birth of the god, his childhood and coming to Olympus. Revenge, or Hesiod (Anterinys or Hesiodos) narrated about the death of Hesiod and punish his killers. In Erigone written elegiac distihom, E. presented Attic legend of Icarus and his daughter Erigone. This was probably the best poetry E., who praises with his treatise on the hill Anonymous. E. was the first scientist who described himself as "philologist" (philologos  who loves science, just as philosophos  who loves wisdom).
