EVRIPED (Euripides)( Greek tragic poet)
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Biography EVRIPED (Euripides)
Euripides; Euripides, from Salamis, ca. 485-406 years. BC. e., Greek tragic poet. Occurred from a wealthy Athenian family. His father Mnesarh (or Mnesarhid) had some ownership of Salamis, the other - in the Attic District Fliya. E. received an excellent education (probably he was a pupil of Anaxagoras, he also knew Prodicus, Protagoras and Socrates). Was a priest of Zeus in Flii and once participated in the Athens embassy in Syracuse. According to the character rather unsociable, he was most happy in his home at Salamis, devoting time to research and a writer's work, there he had his own library. In 455 g. E. first addressed the tragic agony and took third place, the first success came to him in 441 g. Undergoing attack for the novelty of views, it is only 5 times won first prize (including one posthumously). In 408 or 407 g. permanently left Athens.
He withdrew to Pella, the court of the Macedonian king Archelaus, where among other things wrote a play in honor of King Archelaus (Fr.). Died in Pella, according to legend, torn hounds hounds. E. was married twice, first time Melite, the second - by Chorin (or Horile), which bore 3 sons (one of them, Euripides, too, a tragic poet, set after the death of his father's recent work). - Dramatic works E. there are 92 works, combined in a trilogy or tetralogy is often not related to the plot. Wholly survived 17 tragedies and a satyr play, as well as more than 1000 pieces. In the work of E. distinguish 3 periods; works written in each of them had in common that brings them together. The first group consists of drama, which can be called a psychological as well as E. knowledgeably describes the experiences of these women possessed strong passions. Alcestis (Alkestis; 438), the earliest surviving pieces, representing the last part of the tetralogy, consisting of a satyr play.
Hence her tragically burlesque nature. E. In the drama Medea (Medea; 431) tragic conflict played out in the heart of a woman torn apart by passion. Betrayed and deceived barbarian queen after a heavy, masterfully described the internal struggle kills its own children to a way to avenge their father, the wrong Jason. Victim of passion seems to Phedre, the heroine of the tragedy Hippolytus crowned (Hippolytos stefaneforos; 428 AD), is a new treatment of poorly accepted by the public under the name of the play Hippolytus, and hides his face (Hippolytos kalyptomenos). Phaedra tries to hide and overcome the passionate love to her stepson Hippolyte. When the secret is revealed, rejected and humiliated, she commits suicide, Hippolyte revenge from the grave slander. In Hecuba (c.. 425 g.) E. the tragedy of suffering mother and the queen destroyed the people. This woebegone, but the full dignity of a woman transformed into a blood thirsty mstitelnitsu.
Hecuba - the great tragedy of revenge, intrigue and slander. By the same circle of myths belongs Andromache (c.. 419; in Athens was not intended), representing the tragedy of the humiliated and thrown in dire need rich woman. The other group consists of patriotic and political drama: Heracles (Herakleidai; ca. 429) - History of Children of Heracles in Attica seeking help against the enemies. Conflict of two images - the brute force (Eurystheus) and the king's generosity (Demofon) - was intended E. relate to the situation in the Greek world, divided Peloponeskoy beginning of the war into two camps: Sparta and Athens. Echo of this war, we hear also in Weepers (Hiketides; ca. 420). The protagonist of the drama, the Athenian king Theseus, who at the request of the mother argivyanok helps them find the remains of dead sons, embodies the high ideals of this Athenian state. Mad Hercules (Herakles mainomenos; presumably, ca. 416 g.) - a tragic tale of undeserved humiliation of the hero, who overtook him at the end of life.
Hercules on top of the world in a fit of madness killed his wife and children. Rousing himself, he wants to commit suicide, but he keeps a proven friend of Theseus. The ancients called this tragedy, "praise Theseus," which symbolizes wisdom is the wisdom of the state controlled. Troyanki (Troades; 415) comprise a series of tragic pictures, . tells about the fate of Trojan captives after the fall of the city, . is one of the most pessimistic tragedy E., . asserts, . that war brings misery tlko, . as defeated, . and the winners,
. The third group includes the latest date of the play with a complicated intrigue and complicated action, the core of which are perfectly outlined characters. Elektra (probably 413 BC) in terms of content - it is already known to us the tragedy of the matricide Orestes (after the tragedies of Aeschylus and Sophocles). Ye. All history is played out in a modest hut, a peasant, whom Elektra was given in marriage. In the actions of Orestes poet interested primarily moral issues.
After killing the mother Orestes and Electra are covered with guilt, from which there is no cure. Does not help even a reference to the order of Apollo, who, recognizing him, he deserved the condemnation. Play, full of intrigue and adventure, painted fables rather than a tragic mood is Elena (Helene; 412 g.). The poet is known from processed Palipodii Stesichorus version of the myth, according to which the three were only a shadow of Helena, Helena is true, as faithful and loving wife waiting Menelaus in Egypt. After many adventures, the poet joins previously separated spouses. In this play of light as implicit criticism of the war: the Greeks fought for so many years because of the ghostly shadow! You can see in this play and likeness rife with intrigues and wonderful adventures of the Greek novel. Full of dramatic intrigue has also Ion (Ion; between 413 and 409 gg.) Describing the fate of the hero, the son of Apollo, ancestor of the Ionians. Motive expose a child and mutual recognition, along with a happy ending of the play, leads to the fact that this "quiet tragedy is a harbinger of comedies of Menander. Again, the recognition (this time the parents) and no less complicated affair made of Iphigenia in Tauris (Ifigeneia he en Taurois; between 413 and 409 gg.) Extraordinarily spectacular drama
. In Iphigenia at Aulis (Ifigeneia he en Aulidi; 406) main character, at first shocked and excited, after a hard inner struggle consciously decide to sacrifice their lives to ensure good luck to the Greeks, suffering defeat in the war with the Trojans
. Drama Orestes (408) is a psychological study of the effects of the terrible things for matricide and his entourage. Rejected by the gods and persecuted people, Orestes struggles to escape. Sentenced to death, he tries to avenge Menelaus, which vainly waiting for aid. Other tragedies E. difficult to classify into one of these groups. These include: Phoenician (Foinissai; ca. 408), . plot which also, . as the plot Seven Against Thebes by Aeschylus is the fratricidal struggle sons of Oedipus, . containing a number of excellent scenes: among them the brilliant description of the battle and a review of troops from the city walls, . and Bacchae (Bakchai; 407 g.) - the only surviving "Dionysian" drama,
E. described in her story of king Pentheus, who dared to interfere with Dionysus in his victorious march of the world, and the brutal revenge of an angry god. This tragedy, interpreted in various ways, some as evidence of infidelity E., then in other sources, as evidence of his treatment clearly proves that the poet was able to comprehend and evaluate the irrational side of human nature. In the satyr play, Cyclops (Kyklops; date of writing is not installed), the only completely preserved specimen of the genre, E. described the adventures of Odysseus in the cave of Polyphemus. E. also wrote a tragedy Resos (which recreates the scene from the Iliad Book X). Her place in the manuscripts E. took the tragedy of an unknown author under the same name, created, probably in the IV. BC. e. Scenes of his works E. took from the myths, looking for their little-known local versions as well-known myths changed in accordance with the principles of their art and their own views. E. degeroiziroval mythological images.
From the monumental heroes of Aeschylus he made ordinary people who are taking a tragic human fate. The gods have E. subject to the same moral justice, that people. As a rationalist, E. undermine faith in the divine origin of state institutions and the moral and legal norms. He argued that there is no difference between free and slave., Greeks and barbarians, recognizing that the sole criterion of human dignity is its morality. He pursued all forms of injustice and cruelty, talked about the war as a total evil that threatens the highest human values. A good observer, E. always tried to reveal the psychological motivations of his characters actions. With unparalleled insight and candor, he laid bare both bad and good traits of human nature. Being branded as misogynist, he forcefully described their passion, but he managed to show their dedication. Dramatic innovation E. faced with criticism of his contemporaries, who repelled a certain sketchiness Prologues precede the action (usually spoken by a deity), and most of all - appearing at the end of deus ex machina (that is, god on stage machine). It was necessary, inter alia, in order to act, who quit rather far from universally accepted version of the myth, to return to the traditional channel.
Chorus in AMD E. played a lesser role than his predecessors, his connection with the action statements and more arbitrary (the only exception are the Bacchae, one of the last pieces E.) But E. enthusiastically introduced the solo arias (monody). Remarkable in his poetic-agones disputes, often on the merits of the tragic conflict in which most clearly occurred as the influence of the Sophists. Many essential elements adopted from E. New Comedy (cm. Menander), but for her, and recently, the European Theater: E. first introduced in his plays motif recognition and intrigue, has developed a monologue, which was supposed to reflect the inner experiences of the hero, and above all courage to submit to the love scene. E. assessed only after the death of his subsequent popularity is evidenced by the very number of surviving tragedies, many scenes of which are reflected in painting and sculpture. In Rome, the product E. translated more often than the tragedy of Aeschylus and Sophocles, and his influence been primarily Seneca, revised several of his tragedies.