Herodotus (Herodotos)( The Greek historian)
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Biography Herodotus (Herodotos)
Herodotus; Herodotos, 485-OK. 425 years. BC. e., the Greek historian. Born in Halicarnassus, a Greek city in Caria, founded by Dorians, who in the middle of V in. BC. e. subjected to strong influence of Ionian. Close relative of Mr.. was a poet Paniass. In his youth, Mr.. participated in the uprising against Ligdamiya, the tyrant of Halicarnassus. After 450 g. he always left his hometown for a long time lived in Athens, was then the cultural center of the Greek world. Here, he publicly read part of his work, which included praise of Athens, which, according to the ancients, brought him the highest award of 10 talents. In Athens, he became acquainted with Sophocles, and was in close contact with the environment of Pericles. When in 444-443 years. BC. e. Athenians founded in southern Italy city Furies, D. went there and apparently remained there until the end of life. In different periods of his life Mr.. made several trips. In Asia Minor and Greece, he traveled the Black Sea, the country of the Scythians in the current territory of Ukraine, moved to the depths of the Persian kingdom, reached Babylon, and, possibly, Susa.
He also visited Egypt, the Phoenician city on the Syrian coast and Cyrene in Africa. From the western Mediterranean basin, he was only in Sicily and Southern Italy (Crotone, Metaponto). Dates and duration of these trips are controversial among scientists. The product G. titled History (Historiai) in 9 books written on the Ionian dialect. Separation of books (and book titles by name Moose) has a more recent origin, and often seems mechanical, as tears common passages. The basic idea works of Mr.. an age-old antagonism between East and West. The turning point in this conflict were the Greco-Persian Wars. To show the gradual increase, r. traces all the stages of formation of the Persian kingdom. Persian conquest makes possible presentation of the history of nations as they conquer the Persians. G. recounts the history of Lydia, Media, Babylonia, conquered by Cyrus, the history of the conquest of Egypt, Cambyses, Darius, describes the campaign against the Scythians. The Ionian revolt, the first in a long series of clashes with the Greeks, Persians, give G. opportunity to delve into the history of Athens and Sparta, . that finally allows him to describe the Greek-Persian wars of Darius and Xerxes, . climactic phase of the conflict between the Persian East and the Greek world (the battle of Marathon, . Thermopylae, . Salamis and Plataea),
The composition of the product G. extremely complicated (the main narrative digressions and deviations in these narratives), because G. not limited to political history, . but, . modeled on the Ionian logograph (mostly Hecataeus) causes the vast geographical and ethnographic material, . forming small monograph of the work (the description of Babylon, . Egypt, . Scythia), . not stop by and to the free introduction to the story novelistic narratives and fables type,
. In creating his work Mr.. relied on personal observations, lively oral tradition and literary texts. He had not yet developed historical methodology, he does not know how to analyze the sources, however, sought to create a possible objective picture of the past, brought different versions of the events. More than once he gave vent to his doubts, although in general it has no reference to his own opinion.
Cicero, not without reason called the G. "father of history". In contrast Ionian logograph, D. limited time of the narrative lives of two generations. In history, in addition to the actions of men, r. saw divine craft, which determines the fate of nations and individuals, preventing the transition defined borders ( "the envy of the gods"). Significant role in the product G. play signs and predictions. G. influenced Thucydides. His eagerly quoted later geographers, though often critically evaluate its. Fiercely attack the G. Ctesias and Plutarch. During attitsizma G. was recognized as a model of style (simplicity, expressiveness, epic solemnity), and became an author for a school reading. In 1474, Mr.. Lorenzo Valla made translation T. into Latin from Greek manuscripts, brought in 1427 by Mr.. Constantinople.