Julian the Apostate (Iulianus Apostata)( Roman emperor, Greek rhetorician and philosopher)
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Biography Julian the Apostate (Iulianus Apostata)
Julian the Apostate, Flavius Claudius; Iulianus Apostata, Flavius Claudius, 331-363 gg. n. e., the Roman emperor, Greek rhetorician and philosopher. Born in Constantinople, the son of Julia Constance, the brother of Constantine the Great. After the death of his father (337) was brought up by Eusebius, Arian bishop of Nicomedia and later of Constantinople. From 339 g. studied Greek philosophy and literature under the guidance of Mardonius, which awakened in him a love for the Hellenic world. In 344-345 years. lived in Nicomedia, where he met with Libanius (he could not hear the lectures of the pagan orator, but he was secretly handed over records of speeches), and in 351-352 years. - In Pergamum and Ephesus, where he encountered several Neoplatonists philosophers, among them with Maxim of Ephesus, who was a supporter of theurgic Neoplatonism lamblichus and had to YU.O. greatest impact, becoming subsequently led to his break with Christianity. 352-354 years. YU. again held at Nicomedia, studying the works of the Neoplatonists. In 355 g. went to study in Athens, and there met with Gregory the Theologian, and Basil of Caesarea. In 355 g. became co-ruler of the Roman Empire, and married Helen, sister of the Emperor Constantine.
Then up to 360 g. fought in Gaul with the Germanic tribes, the Franks and allemanov. When 361 g. Constantius demanded reinforcements in the war against the Persians, the Gallic legions mutinied and declared YU.O. Emperor. In 363 g. during the campaign against the Persians YU.O. died of wounds received in the Battle of Marengo. The words allegedly uttered YU.O. before his death: "You have conquered, Galilean!" ( "Galilaie nenikekas"; lats. "Galilaee vicisti") - we find only in the V. y Feodoreta. By making power YU.O. issued an edict of toleration, which repealed all ordinances Constance against pagans, called for the expulsion of the Christian bishops - the supporters of the Nicene (among them Athanasius). YU.O. proclaimed the true religious tolerance and not persecuted Christians, but struggled against Christianity and sought to create a strong pagan church modeled on the Christian Church. Most painful perceived Christians, the Edict of 362, which almost deprived them of the possibility of teaching Greek literature. - From the works YU.O. maintain 8 speeches, 2 of satirical essays and collection of letters
. The first three speeches, . dating back 356-357 years., . praise of the Emperor Constantine and Empress Eusebius: 1) Praise Caesar Constance (Enkomion eis ton autokratora Konstantion), . 2) The acts of Caesar Constance (Peri ton tu autokratoros prakseon e peri basileias), . 3) Praise Empress Eusebius (Eusebieas tes basilidos enkomion); four following language (362) were devoted to the problems introduced YU.O,
. religion, . under which he pytalsyach take Neoplatonic foundation: 4) The king of helium to Salyustiyu (Eis ton basilea Helion pros Salustion) and 5) The mother of the gods (Eis ten metera ton theon) introduces the basics of the new religion, . while the speech 6) and 7) protecting the gods from attacks Cynics, . with a speech on 6 against the uneducated Cynics (Eis tus apaidetus kynas) YU.O,
. opposed contemporary pseudo-Cynics, contrasting them Diogenes Sinop, an example of genuine Cynics, and in speech 7 against Cynic Heraclea (Pros Herakleion kynikon) objected to the Cynics, denied the Hellenic myths and gods. This 8 In a consolation in parting with a brilliant Sallust (Epi te eksodo tu agathotatu Salusti paramyphetikos eis heauton) was written in Lutetia (Lutetia Parisiorum, sovr. Paris), ca. 358/359 g. on the occasion of the recall from Gaul Neo-Platonist Sallust, a friend YU.O.
It is a combination of two ancient literary forms, speakers in poetry, and rhetoric: the so-called propemptiki (works on the occasion of farewell to the dearest person) and konsolatsii (consolation). Composing Feast or Feast Krona (Symposion e Kronia; lats. Caesares), founded in 361 city - not too funny Menippean satire (cm. Menippus), describing a feast on Olympus, which accounts for the dead Roman emperors, ridiculed Silenus. By secret ballot gods recognize the best of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, who was an example for YU.O. along with Alexander the Great. Two works of 362-363 years. were directed against Christians. This enemy beards (Misopogon), ridiculed Antioch Christians, objected to the innovations JO, and not preserved polemic against the Galileans (Kata Galilaion) in 3 books, which YU.O. employ and Gelli Porfiri, criticizing the cult of relics and the idea of martyrdom. Arguments YU.O. Under the name YU.O. preserved collection of 87 letters, but only 60 of them original. In private letters (among them to Libanius, Maxim Ephesian and doctor Oribaziyu) there were also official documents - the imperial decrees and edicts. On top of this noteworthy letter to the Himalia on the general principles governing the state (s. 361) and the autobiographical letter to the Athenians (361 g.).
Been lost poetic speech, panegyrics, epigrams, the work of the military arrangements, a treatise on the origin of evil and an essay about the war with the Germans (description of his own actions in Gaul to 357 g.). YU.O. attitsistom was, in his speeches, we find many classical allusions (from Homer and Hesiod to Plato and Demosthenes), and sophistical (from Dion Prussia to Himalia and Libanius). However, he wrote a vague, difficult to understand, sometimes chaotic language. Works YU.O. provide more value as a document of the era than as literary works.