Kallima (Kallimachos)( Greek scholar and poet)
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Biography Kallima (Kallimachos)
Callimachus; Kallimachos, of Cyrene, ca. 310-after 245 years. BC. e., Greek scholar and poet. Born in the famous family, which owes its origin to Butt, the founder of Cyrene. He arrived in Alexandria soon after 300 AD, first earned his living by teaching children in the city suburb Elevsii. The first poetic works (extant, probably some epigrams) belong to this period. Summoned to the court of Ptolemy II Philadelphus began working in the Library, the keeper of which, as we now know, he never was. - The great and a perfect scientific work to. Tables are (full name: The tables of those who distinguished himself in all kinds of literature, and what they have written) in the 120 book, being a kind of directory of Alexandria Library and at the same time the first set of the whole of Greek literature. K. shared literature in prose and poetry, emphasizing again in epic poetry, elegy, yambografiyu, lyric poetry, tragedy, comedy, and in prose - history, rhetoric, philosophy, medicine and law. Within individual genera authors listed in alphabetical order. K. gave brief biographical information about each author, and then gives a list of his works, resulting in the first line and the total number of lines (poetry).
Repeatedly he had to decide the question of the author's affiliation. K. written, presumably, 800 books of prose, but from this rich heritage preserved only a few fragments. However, they illustrate the versatility of the interests of the Alexandrian scholar, for affecting philosophical, historical, geographical, natural sciences, etc.. questions. In particular, typical of the barbaric customs of the colonization of the islands, under the cities and change their names, on the rivers, especially the first paradoksograficheskoe product (cm. Paradoksografy) Collection of oddities from around the world (Thaumaton [...] synagoge), which was subsequently used by Antigonus of Karisto. By writing poetry. was inextricably linked to his scientific activities. He was known as the legislator of Alexandrian poetry, as first formulated its program and the basic principles. The main tenets of K. were: a small taste for poetic forms, . committed nevertheless artistically; expulsion from the literature of any epic with action unfolded as impotent imitation of Homer, avoidance commonplaces of themes and subjects, . place which should take local traditions, . never before been used in the literature, . or, . at least, . unknown version of the famous myth,
From the poetic works to. in medieval manuscripts preserved only hymns and epigrams, small fragments of other works have become known to us only by quotations from later classical authors. And only the opening of papyrus in Egypt has allowed us to better assess the AK-poet. Survived 6 hymns: 1. Zeus (Eis Dia), 2. By Apollo (Eis Apollona), 3. By Artemis (Eis Artemin), 4. By Delphic Apollo (Eis Apollona Delion), 5. At the swimming Pallas (Eis lutra tes Pallados), 6. By Demeter (Eis Demetra). Anthem For swimming Pallas written, in spite of the literary tradition, elegiac meter, the rest, in full accordance with it, hexameters. Hymn to Zeus, apparently, the earliest, is also praising Ptolemy II Philadelphus, who, like Zeus, was the youngest of the brothers, and became king. In the hymn to the goddess Artemis is therefore a little girl sitting on her lap father Zeus and prattling to him something on the child's language. Hymn to Apollo, Pallas, and swimming on to Demeter - innovative in its construction. K. leads the reader into the crowd gathered at a religious festival, and acts as a browser, telling a sacred thing between a legend. All of these hymns were purely literary works, decorated with great art, full of learning, and were meant to be read in a narrow circle of connoisseurs.
In the Palatine Anthology preserved epigram 61 K. (including two, the authorship of which is doubtful), 2 of the epigrams are known quotations of later authors. Most of them are bogus funeral epigrams and proclamations are also represented in the literary and erotic themes. Our knowledge of the other works for. we must first of all papyrus fragments. The most extensive and best known of these were reasons (Aitia) in 4 books, written in elegiac meter. This poem, written in the early period of life,. issued once already in old age. In the prologue to the second edition, the so-called Telhinskoy elegies, presented to his literary program at the same time smoothing with opponents, whom he calls malign dwarf telhinami. After the prologue reason to resume the narrative of how he was in the dream was moved from Libya (Africa =?) At Helicon. There he met the Muses (Wed. with Hesiod's Theogony), which K. asked various questions. Answers Muses are the first series of elegies reasons. Books III and IV were, however, different structure. The composition of the whole work was a chain, the individual elegies contacted each other only by means of free associations (the only way, according to the program of GK, one could write a poem large size). Their content is the etiological legends, then there are those who installed the reasons (aitia) occurrence of various customs, rites, names, and t. d. One of the most famous elegies in reason - a love story Acontius Cydippe and III of the book (an excerpt from her preserved on papyrus).
The second edition of the poem in the book came Elegy IV Lock of Berenice (Plokamos Berenikes), later translated into Latin Catullo. K. it tells about the birth of Queen Berenice's Lock constellation (the constellation Coma Berenices), which she dedicated to Aphrodite, that her husband returned safely from a military campaign. The old poet with great cordiality tells of a young royal Csete. Papyrus is our duty, and excerpts from iambs, a collection, which included 13 or 14 short pieces, not related to each other and written in different periods of life to. They are written in different sizes, mostly iambic and trochaic meters, and contain a critique of contemporary mores poet, literary controversy and etiological legends. The stated rules to. readily illustrated fables. As a sample to. in iambs indicates Gipponaksa, which in iamb I he deduces from Aida. Loud glory enjoyed in ancient times known to us only in fragments of papyrus Hecale. This was the so-called epilion (ie, a small epic). Hecale represent the genre, who By. wanted to oppose the big epic with the action unfolded. From the famous legend of Theseus fight with marathon bull so I chose the time, considered until then insignificant: the meeting of Theseus with the poor old woman Gekaloy, which provided him hospitality in his hut. Upon returning Theseus learned that Hecale already dead. Characteristic of K. and the Alexandrian poets had here the attraction to genre scenes, which found expression in the description of the simple life of rural Gekaly old woman and her crippled economy.
Echoes Gekaly, readily readable in antiquity, we find in Roman literature. Papyri returned to us as fragments of lyrical poems to. The biggest of these is the deification of Arsinoe (Ektheosis Arsinoes), written after the death of Queen. Beyond that preserved a small fragment of the night festivities (Pannychis) and Branham, a work of the shepherd-prophet, the legendary founder of the famous oracle Didimskogo. The finds of papyri in Oksirinhe in Egypt and brought the fragments elegies K., known hitherto only from quotations by other authors. This Berenice, eulogy in honor of Berenice II, epinikia Song of winning Sosibiya (Epinikion eis Sosibion), the first work of this genre, written in elegiac verse. Of the lost poetic works, which are known to us only by name, should be called Ibiza, which uses Ovid's poem with the same name. Ibis By. was 'poem curse' against literary enemies, among whom, perhaps, was Apollonius of Rhodes. K. also wrote tragedies, comedies and satirical drama, but as fragments, and reliable information on these products available.
To. was a tireless seeker of new literature, which stems from the desire to create original poetry, from the reluctance to copy old designs. K. reformed hexameter, and experimented with other poetic dimensions, adjusting the size of the old to the new content. He skillfully mastered the style and language. The material for poetry, both in terms of both form and the content, K. supplying its own research, mainly philological, historical and antique. However, this scholarship is not reflected on the true poetic quality of his work. K. distinguished by the exceptional literary taste, and deep knowledge of ancient Greek literature helped him to define his poetic program. Personally and financially dependent on the king, to. was a court poet, but his brilliant mind and subtle irony allowed him to maintain a distance in relations with the ruler and to avoid flattery. The originality and genuine creative program to. influenced the poetry of the Hellenistic period, and through him and Roman poetry, especially neoterikov and poets avgustianskoy era.