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Livy (Livius, Titus)

( Roman historian)

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Biography Livy (Livius, Titus)
Livius, Titus; Livius, Titus, 59 g. BC. EG-17 g. n. e., Roman historian. Occurred from a wealthy family from Patavii (sovr. Padova). In his early youth had come to Rome, where he received a good education. He devoted himself to the study of philosophy, history and rhetoric. Close relationship bound him with Augustus. He took no active part in political life. L. was the author did not survive the dialogues of historical and philosophical content and also not surviving rhetorical works, which shaped letter to son. Probably, he expounded to him his literary credo: as models of style he called from the Greek authors Demosthenes, but from Rome - Cicero. After 27 g. BC. e. began work on the history of Rome: History of Rome from the founding of the city (Ab urbe condita libri) in 142 books. This work covers a history of Rome from legendary times to the modern era of the author, before the death of Drusus, stepson of Augustus, that is, until 9 g. n. e. We can assume that A. not finished its work, since the death of friends are not foreign to the history of Rome.

Fully preserved 35 books: book. IX, or the first decade, which describes the history of Rome from the beginning to 293 g. BC. e., that is, until Samniyskoy War III, Prince. XXI-XLV, third, fourth and fifth half of the decade, covering Roman history from 218 to 167 years. BC. e., that is, from the beginning of II Punic War to the end of the Macedonian War III. Preserved as fragments of the book. XCI, describing the war with Sertorij, and fragments of the book. CXX describing the death of Cicero. L. labored over his work for forty years, so it is difficult to establish the date of writing of its parts. However, there is some evidence to suggest that the first books were created between 27 and 25 years. BC. e. that the book. IX was written to 20 g. BC. e. and the last book - only after the death of Augustus, ie after 14 g. n. e. This author may have wanted to finish his story, but died without bringing the matter to an end. The current division of Stories on the above decade (as in pentads) is, presumably, to IV in. n. e.

Such volume product testing the patience the reader, so quickly began to be created his brief retellings. Significant of the surviving retellings are so-called Periohii (Periochae, perhaps, IV in. n. BC.), which consistently sets out all the books (lost periohii to kn. CXXXVI and CXXXVII). In the product L. relied on earlier writers, especially younger annalistov: Lucia Elia Tuberona, Gaya Licinius Macer and Valeria from Antsiya (mostly in the first decade), and the Fabius Piktora, Calpurnia Piso, Claudia Kvadrigariya and Polybius. The reliability of the facts contained L., varies depending on the sources, to whom he had not always been sufficiently critical. True to tradition throughout the ancient historiography, L. perceived their work primarily as a literary work with the plainly expressed patriotic tendencies. His main goal was to describe the grandeur of ancient Rome, to more clearly show its decline. He tried to find in past centuries, role models, . as well as people and situations, . through which Rome found its power, lose sight of the far-reaching implications of the Roman imperialist policies, . Civil wars, . large social upheavals,

But he believed in the moral values and that they saw the revival of Rome pledge. With his work he thus joined the common aspirations that inspired the Augustan age. For August wanted to improve Roman society, demoralized by long civil wars of previous eras, and to achieve this goal were good variety of means, among other things, and literature. All this would result in L. to idealize the Roman past. The main hero of his works became populus Romanus (Roman people). Socio-political struggle between the patricians and plebeians L. described in terms of an aristocrat. He perceived the Roman history in isolation from the history of other peoples, especially the Italic tribes, which is an undoubted disadvantage of this composition. Confessing the views of the Stoics, L. believed prodigii, that is wonderful phenomenon, and in fate. In the history of his particular interest outstanding units. He described his characters through their actions, but often - through their speech.

These speeches L. trim very carefully, and their fine form is only his merit. In the remaining books, we find about 40 speeches. Talent narrator L. and its ability to present dramatic events have allowed him to create a full life image of the past, though not always consistent with the historical documents. Style A. is an example of excellent prose, which is approaching the level of Cicero, there are also features of poetic style.. Chronologically, it represents an intermediate stage between the classical style and the so-called Latin Empire Silver Age. L. quickly achieved fame. Yours say about him such writers as Seneca the Elder, Seneca the Philosopher, and Tacitus Kvintillian. A product. used Valerius Maximus, Annaeus Florus, onion and Sily Italic.

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