Mark Annaeus Lucan (Lucanus, Marcus Annaeus)( Roman poet)
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Biography Mark Annaeus Lucan (Lucanus, Marcus Annaeus)
Lucan, Marcus Annaeus; Lucanus, Marcus Annaeus, 39-65 years. n. e., Roman poet. Son of Anne Melia, the nephew of the philosopher and tragedian Seneca, born in the Spanish city Kordube. From 40 g. lived in Rome, where he received an excellent rhetorical education. Teacher LA, as well as a poet of Persia, was the famous Stoic philosopher Kornut. Finishing his studies in Athens, where Nero called him to Rome, to include the poet, whose talent attracted his attention, in terms of his closest friends. Another under-age L. became quaestor. Was also augurs. Although L. Earlier brilliantly recited in Greek and Latin and tried his hand at various literary genres, he spoke publicly for the first time in 60 g. the so-called "Neron", which, thanks to Nero, received the award. Following the publication of 62/63 g. the first three books of historical epics, which have been recognized in public, for reasons unknown (possibly because of the envy of the Emperor or excessive sensibility of the poet) in his relations with Nero cracks. The emperor forbade the poet exercises his craft, the poet read a poem insulting to Nero and joined the so-called conspiracy of Piso.
Nero sentenced to death, committed suicide - April 30, 65 g. he opened his veins, reciting verses from his epic. - L. left a significant literary heritage, which survived only a historical epic. We know the names of the dead (presumably 14) works, . among them the works on mythological subjects: Iliakon (Iliakon), . where on the basis of the Iliad, he presented the death of Hector, . Katahtonion (poem about the underground world), . poetic treatment of the myth of Orpheus and unfinished tragedy of Medea,
. L. also wrote the libretto for 14 pantomimes. At Nero in 60 g. He gave praise to Nero (Laudes Neronis), and after confusion with Nero wrote a poem, which offended the emperor. Only we know the name of a collection Silvarum libri X, which included the poem in case. Beyond that L. wrote epigrams, letters, rhetorical declamation, among them on fire in Rome. The main and the only surviving piece of L. a historical epic, marked in the manuscripts as ten books on the Civil War (Belli civilis libri X), and the poet himself called Pharsalus. Composing is, . first books published by the poet himself shortly after 60 пЁ., . conceived, . probably, . 12 books (on the model of Virgil) and, . perhaps, . should be completed on a tragic ending - the death of Cato, . and perhaps the murder of Caesar, but it has not been completed, . because the effect of breaks on the book,
X. The plot of the collision were Caesar and Pompey in the Second Civil War. Initial books contain both a display and described the battle that took place in the background, and in kn.I L. outlined the reasons for the war, gave a description of both opponents and described Caesar's march on Rome, in the book. V-VIII, the main part of epics, describes the collision of Caesar and Pompey in Greece: Caesar's passage through Greece (V kn.) Defeat him under Dirrahiem and fled to Thessaly (VI book.) Pompey's flight to Africa and his death ( VII book.). The action of the remaining books are in Africa and covers the Cato trip to Africa, especially its dramatic transition through the desert (IX kn.) And stay and fight Caesar in Egypt (X kn.). Historical information about the relatively recent past, L. borrowed largely from the works of Libya (from the book did not survive. CIX-CXII), and possibly from the Gallic War, Caesar. Historical events he described sparingly, but expanded the epic through numerous digressions.
L. attached little importance to the historical dates and facts. Protagonists of the epic (Caesar, Pompey, Cato) are in accordance with the republican tradition; Caesar personifies tyranny, Cato - liberty, as Pompey became the symbol of its former luster Rome. L. used in his epic, almost all the formal elements and almost all the motives of the ancient epic: scenes of battles, speeches, lists of troops, a storm at sea, the scene in the underworld, and t. d. In accordance with the epic tradition, for the demonstration of learning L. included in his work - in excessive quantities - highly seasoned with rhetoric, geographical, ethnographic, mythological, natural history excursions. But firmly rejected vergilievu-Homeric tradition, abandoning the vehicle deities who governed the destinies of the characters previously. This innovation has sharply criticized Petronius in Satyricon. Unlike traditional epics there is no one hero, but three protagonist (Caesar, Pompey and Cato) play the same role. The unity of the same L. stand by direction of the final triumph of the crime. L., . Shaken to the depths of civil war, . which led to the downfall of the republic (defender of its fading light - Pompey) and the victory of the undivided, . wants to show its tragic moral consequences, . when the madness replaces reason, . crime and lawlessness (which represents an outstanding demonic and destructive personality - Caesar) takes the place of law,
According to the poet, the world ruled by blind fate, chance (fortune, fate). Which is a favorite of Caesar and the gods and the people can not possibly affect the course of events. L., . however, . finds, . that in this situation the person is only a certain autonomy, . grows from the denial of reality (it has the stoic sage Katon, . unsuccessfully resistant autocracy, . hero, . in a sense, speaking on behalf of LA),
. These concepts L. consistently reveals throughout the work, and thus Pharsalus become like anti-Aeneid, for the poet praises them the freedom of Rome, and condemned the empire. L. attempted by many poetic descriptions to avoid the boredom that threatens the reader of the historical epic, which lacked one of the most traditional means of creating artistic composition, as was the apparatus of the gods. Rhetorical Art L. finds expression in more than 100 speeches, . included in the epic, . beautiful oratorical compositions, . and above all - in a rhetorical and pathetic style (apostrophes, . interjection, . Maxim, . antithesis, . comparison, . brilliant phrase), . in the style of almost Baroque or maneristicheskom, . not devoid of exaggeration and bombast,
Rhetorical declamation and grim realism in describing the killings, death, and so on, admiring the horrors were supposed to shake listeners or readers. Although L. carefully line up poems, he could not give them smoothness and refinement. In the formal respect L. is the successor of the entire preceding his literary era. Especially for many he was obliged to Virgil, Ovid, Seneca. In accordance with the rhetorical nature of the poem A. in ancient times absented more to the speakers than to the poets (Kvintillian), criticized his innovations (Petronius). Nevertheless, its very highly of Statius, Martial, Tacitus, Juvenal. Pharsalus had an impact not only on the poets of the Empire, they read and comment as in the Middle Ages.