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Maclay NN

( Scientific)

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Biography Maclay NN
About 15 years spent Maclay away from home, doing extensive plan of anthropological and ethnographic research in New Guinea, the islands of Melanesia, Micronesia, Indonesia, the Malay Peninsula. As opposed to pseudo-scientific theories of division of human races at the lower and higher, he proved the validity of their judgments vast factual material, collected by him during the many years of travels in Oceania. His work and still serve the cause of the struggle against colonialism, with the misanthropic theories and practices of modern racists.

In prerevolutionary times, scientific and social achievement traveler has not been sufficiently understood and appreciated. Unique diaries and observations Maclay with time lost. Only some of his scientific legacy was published in 1923. It took many years to the most valuable documentary material Maclay were collected.

Currently documentaries H. N. Maclay concentrated in the USSR, mainly in two archives:
Academic archives of the Geographical Society of the USSR (DPP) and the Leningrad branch of the Archives of the USSR (DEL).

Material in the archives of the Academic GO, represent the bulk of the vast fund traveler (1). It documents the life, travels, social, political and scientific-organizational activities Maclay. The greatest value in this collection are the expedition diaries and notebooks, . who led the scientist during his travels to New Guinea (18701882), . peninsula Malacca (18741875), . islands of Micronesia and Melanesia (18761880), . Admiralty Islands (1876),
. Among these documents drew attention to the manuscript of Why I chose New Guinea (1871), in which Maclay explains the scientific purpose and objectives of their research on the island, have received in those years the name of the devil. Travelers' diaries contain a record of events, . occurred during its long stay on the islands of Oceania, . as well as information on the ethnography, . Anthropology, . Geography, . Zoology, . lists carefully assembled collections of ethnographic and other,
. Entries in the diaries were conducted in Russian, German, French, English and Arabic scholar knew seventeen languages and dialects. The diaries often pencil drawings Maclay he was very remarkable draftsman. With great skill and precision sealed with numerous species of the island of New Guinea, Java, Celebes, New Caledonia.

Scientific interest is anthropological and ethnographic sketches of the Papuans, their huts and other buildings, household utensils, weapons, clothing. The archive contains a unique manuscript map of the Maclay Coast, made a traveler in the years 18711872, maps used by Maclay during expeditions to the islands of the Pacific with his notes.

Settling among the Papuans, Maclay did his best to better learn their language. Its materials are composed of several dictionaries of dialects and dialects of the Papuans
. Interestingly, many years of correspondence Maclay with the Geographical Society, . in which a lot of information about the publication of the expedition scientist reports, . data on the political and social situation of the natives of the islands of Oceania, . proposals on the organization of zoological stations in Singapore and Sydney,
. Scientific value of a manuscript of a traveler my daily life, revealing his life in New Guinea. Brightly written summaries and texts of speeches Maclay at the Geographical Society and the Polytechnic Museum on his trip to New Guinea and other Pacific islands, complete diaries scientist who helped the disclosure of their contents.

Stored in the Leningrad branch of the Archive of the USSR materials H. N. Maclay relate mainly to his four journeys to New Guinea (18701880 years). This diaries, sketches of numerous types of Papuans, domestic scenes from their lives, language-related materials; descriptions of the slave trade of the British, Dutch and German colonialists in the islands of the Pacific Equatoria. Here are stored the materials describing the activity of the traveler to protect the rights of indigenous people of New Guinea, and protests against the seizure of its territory by Germany in 1884. Attention is drawn to a unique project scientist for the organization on an island in the Pacific, the Russian community, the friendly local people.

Interesting and unfinished manuscript of individual works of traveler's Anthropology and Ethnography of the peoples of the Pacific, were preparing them for printing. Much of the material is correspondence Maclay: drafts and copies of his letters to prominent scientific and public figures of Russia. Among them are letters to the LN. Tolstoy, Professor. S.P. Botkin, academics ms. Voronin and LI. Schrenk, a letter from the LN. Tolstoy (copy), from academicians MA. Rykacheva, AA. Schiffner and others. Represent a valuable source of biographical material Maclay, lists of his works, publications, a kind of testament, vividly depicting devotion Maclay Science. It scientist bequeathed to pass after the death of his skull Academy of Sciences for his anthropological study. (Will Traveler was performed only after 50-odd years, with reburial of his remains). It is interesting memories Maclay on his meeting with and. S. Turgenev (1882).

In addition to the documents stored in the archives of the Academic GO and LO Archive USSR, as well as in other Soviet archives, the traveler are in Australia (2). Some of the documents left behind by the death of Maclay, his widow M. Robertson burned. Some of the rescued material in Russian was transferred to the Geographical Society. After the death of M. Robertson in 1936, most of the remaining materials scientist's sons were sent to the library Mitchellovskuyu Sydney. Among them, some manuscripts traveler, . documents (submissions, . correspondence) to protect the rights of the indigenous population of the islands of Oceania, . materials development project to create an independent Papuan state on the Maclay Coast of New Guinea (1881), several hundred drawings and numerous photographs,
. Some of the materials H. N. Maclay remained in the family of his successors and are now at the traveler's grandson Kenneth Maclay (a barrister in Sydney). These materials are copies and drafts of letters to the British traveler and the Dutch colonial administration to protect the rights of the Papuans of New Guinea.

In 1962, in order of scientific and cultural exchange, the Central State Archive of the Navy of the USSR (Leningrad) has received microfilm copies of all materials NN. Maclay, stored in the library Mitchellovskoy. Of great interest are the three volumes of the diary M. Robertson, stored in the library of the University of Sydney (3). Photocopy of the first volume of the diary, in which a more detailed description of the last four years of life traveler, came to the USSR in two copies: one kept in the Institute of Ethnography of NN. Maclay USSR, the other in the State Library of the USSR in the name. I. Lenin.

Extensive manuscript heritage Maclay stored in the archives of the Academic GO and LO Archive USSR, carefully documented and studied. It enabled the 1950-1954 years to publish 5 volumes of collected works Traveler (4).

. Much of his manuscript heritage is still waiting for their researchers, as published by no means exhausts the wealth of materials that make up the documentary fund NN
. Maclay.

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