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ZHELYAZNIKOV Constantine Afanasievich

( Scientific)

Comments for ZHELYAZNIKOV Constantine Afanasievich
Biography ZHELYAZNIKOV Constantine Afanasievich
My report I have dedicated to the memory of Constantine Afanasievich Zheleznyakova, familiarity with which in 1985. identified my interest in the life and work of our compatriots, . laid the basis for studying the ancient history of Northeast China - the edge, . which has long been not only an outpost of Russia's influence in the Far East, . but became a new homeland for several generations of immigrants from Russia,

Indeed, it so happened that at the beginnings of the science of antiquities Manchuria were Russian explorers. We can mention a number of scientific works of archaeologists, Harbin, which are well known and hitherto used in studies of Russian and Chinese specialists. Much to incorporate these materials into a modern research process makes Chinese colleagues in Harbin, published over the last decade, virtually all of the relevant article Russian ethnographers and archaeologists in the translation into Chinese (1).

. At the beginning of my studies in archeology of Northeast China and Inner Mongolia, I was surprised that the discoverers of many famous archaeological sites in Manchuria were our countrymen
. And among them, not only amateur archaeologist, but also professionals, who led the work on the search, registration and scientific understanding of antiquities edge. Harbin researchers were well aware that the data on the archeology and ethnography of Manchuria allow for increased understanding and to identify more fully Curtain ethno-cultural processes taking place in this part of Asia.

The first Russian who at the end of the last century was carried out historical and ethnographic study of Manchuria, have shown interest in its ancient monuments were MI. Venyukov, R.K. Maak, P.A. Kropotkin, п-.пг. Usol'tsev, P. Kafarov, DV. Putyata, I. Rubinov, NG. Garin-Mikhailovsky. The development of Russian Manchuria in connection with the construction and maintenance of lines CEL has led to that interest in history of the region increased further.

A special stage archaeological and ethnographic study of the Manchurian region associated with the formation of the eastern branch of Russia's migration from the center in Harbin (2). Since the early 20-ies. a place of attraction all the forces of the local Society for the Study of local lore became the Manchurian region (OIMK, 1922-1928 gg., first chairman of the historical and ethnographic section was п-.п°. Baranov) and CEL Museum (opened in 1923). We can mention a number of names of researchers have contributed to the study of archeology Manchuria: п-.п°. Baranov, VY. Tolmachev, E. Titov, VV. Ponosov, LM. Yakovlev, VN. Alin VS. Makarov, KA. Zheleznyakov, A.S. Lukashkin, AI. Malyavkin, VS. Starikov, etc..

Research activities in Harbin archaeologists and ethnographers have not yet found a decent reflection. We continue to use their published work (3), but not recorded are the archives and collections, exported from China in the 50-60-ies. Unfortunately, the fate of these people we know still very little. Much remains unclear in the biographies of researchers. Communication and correspondence with the old harbintsam, colleagues in the Far East and in China, search the archives allowed me to collect some material on Harbin archaeologists.

The recognized leaders of the north-Manchu archeology in the early 20. 50-ies. were Vladimir Yakovlevich Tolmachev, Vladimir V. Ponosov. They stood at the cradle of original Harbin archaeological and ethnographic school.

VY. Tolmachev in Russia is primarily known as one of the first archaeologists Uralic. He was born Nov. 21, 1876, Mr.. Shadrinsk county in the province of Perm in the noble family. He received a classical education in Yekaterinburg school. Entering in 1896. Petersburg University, he then in 1900. was once in the second year of the Archaeological Institute. Classes Ural archeology were suspended in 1904, when Tolmachev was in the army. Two years of war in Manchuria were not only testing but also the first experience of acquaintance with China. Then he opened the Neolithic park on the river. Haychenhe (which again visited in 1923), funerary monuments in the region r. Fushun, in the region r. Mukden (now Shenyang), a collection of bronze nozzles alleged Scythian period and described the medieval settlement with a square earthen wall. Tolmachev has a small collection of their findings to export in Yekaterinburg, some of them (along with a collection of butterflies from Manchuria) is stored in the Sverdlovsk Regional Museum. Fate is free to dispose of so that most of the second half of his life VY. held in Manchuria (4). Officer of the tsarist army Tolmachev was forced to leave Russia. In Harbin he arrived probably in spring 1922. and lived there for more than 13 years. He was one of those Harbin humanitarians who were educated in the old Russian university centers. He had not only a special archaeological education, but also a great experience of independent research and field of archaeological research. At the new location Tolmachev immediately proceeded to scientific pursuits. He served on the Board of CEL. His studies were associated with the line passing the railway. In the Museum he was in charge of commerce and industry department. Among the merits VY. It should be noted: the opening of the first reliable data on the Paleolithic of Manchuria, the study of the monuments of the Neolithic culture around g. Hailar (together with E. Titov), he first raised the issue of joining the North-East China in the sphere of influence of the Scythian-Siberian world of culture, did much to explore one of the nation's capital in chzhurchzheney Baychene. In the mid 30's Tolmachev moved to Shanghai. For a long time in our country's name and contribution to science VY. Tolmacheva suppressed (5). Only recently learned that in 1942. Tolmachev and his wife received Soviet citizenship and permission to return home. On the way home Tolmachev died and was buried in China (6).

Vladimir Ponosov also had practical experience of archaeological work, obtained before emigration (7). He was born 25 February 1899. family of large landowners Ufa. At seventeen he graduated from a technical school and joined the Faculty of Economics of the Commercial Institute in Kiev. Then he did and his first archaeological discovery, finding Eneolithic parked in his estate. Further studies conducted in the foothills of the Southern Urals. Since 1922. Ponosov lived in Harbin. After the elimination in 1928. OIMK, an active member of which he was, Vladimir became a founder member of the presidium of the Club and the Natural Sciences and Geography, and from 1929 to 1945. He led the National Organization of researchers przhevaltsev through teenage circles which have passed many young residents of Harbin (8). Since 1932. VV. was a staff member of the Museum, where he headed the Department of Ethnology. During the museum's work was Ponosov card catalog of archaeological monuments and the history of Northern Manchuria with the plans and a brief description, . put in order the collection of objects Lamaist Worship, . growing collection of the museum with their own archaeological finds,
. Under his leadership, conducted excavations of ancient settlements in Baychene and Duntszichene. In the mid 30's he had conducted research in the station area and the Songhua River in the vicinity of Barga. In 1931, Mr.. headed paleoetnologicheskogo detachment of the first expedition of the Institute to examine the special district of the eastern provinces conducted research on the river. Mudanjiang and Lake. Tszinpohu. There he discovered a number of monuments of the Neolithic and paleometalla. The first explorers discovered archeology Manchuria cultural monuments of the Bronze Age, which is now known as culture baytszinbao. The name Ponosov related study of the famous Paleolithic location in Kusyantune. Particularly noteworthy are his collection of materials on the ethnography of Solon and Daur. Unfortunately, they have not been published and now researchers are not able to work with them. After 1949. Ponosov stayed in Harbin. This period of his life, little is known. In 1957. he was invited to the newly created Museum of Heilongjiang to bring the collections in order and the transfer of expertise by the Chinese employees. Was carried out several field visits, during which Ponosov advised Chinese archaeologists to conduct archaeological prospecting and excavation. In 1959, Mr.. VV. wrote a work on the history of archaeological study of Northern Manchuria, which summed up the experience of Russian archeologists. It is available only in Chinese translation, published recently in Harbin. Ponosov left China in 1961. and moved to Australia. Died in 1975.

Many archaeological sites have been opened by people who were not professional archaeologists, but has a genuine interest in the past the edge, where they had to live and work. Interesting work conducted in Barginskih Steppes and Chinese Amur Vladimir Kormazov, Officer of the Economic Bureau of the CER from 1924. In the middle - second half of the 20-ies. he explored the shaft Genghis Khan and the adjoining settlement on the river. Gan (Genhe) in Trehrechja, opened the first Pisanitsa on the river. Quick (tributary. Argun), noted the location of graves in the upper river. Chenhe, explored the shores of Lake. Dalai-nor, where he opened a parking lot and mound, looked at a number of caves. In 1931, Mr.. Karmazov worked on the Amur and Ussuri. One of the islands in front of Albazina found the remains of fortifications times of Emperor Kangxi. Kormazov died in Australia (9).

Mining engineer Casimir Vladislavovich Grokhovsky made the first trip to the northern outskirts of Barga has in 1914-15. His last work on the search for ancient monuments in the basin. Nonni are beginning 30-ies. In Barg worked as Dmitri Petrovich Panteleyev. They also brought back from his trips exhibits, the collection, the Museum
. Ornithologist and mammologist Anatoly Stepanovich (Stefanovic) Lukashkin, . who was one of the curators of the Museum, . opened a number of archaeological sites in Barg, . but particularly known for his research in the area of Hailar, . Anantsi station where he opened the Neolithic cultures, . which today is considered one of the earliest in the Amur region,
. Lukashkin left Harbin in 1940. He managed to take out your entire archive. In addition, he being in America, carried on an extensive correspondence with his friends and colleagues OIMK Club and the Natural Sciences and Geography, initiated the writing of a number of memories of Harbin, was the curator of the archive VY. Tolmachev, VA. Kormazova, began a catalog of periodicals in Russian language in China, Japan, Mongolia, Southeast Asia and Australia in the period from 1898 to 1952. In recent years he also collected material on the history of the Cossacks. Unfortunately, at present, all these invaluable sources remain unavailable to study

. Harbin archaeological and ethnographic school gave way to the science of two prominent Sinologist Russia: a prominent specialist in medieval history of the peoples of Central Asia, Anatolia Gavrilovich Malyavkin (1917 - 1994) and Vladimir Starikov (1919-1987), . author of many works on the ethnography and history of China, and among them the classic work on the material culture of the Chinese in Northeast China,

Unfortunately, life's circumstances did not give further training in archeology Constantine Afanasievich Zheleznyakova. His article, results of some archaeological reconnaissance in the floodplain of the lower reaches of the river. Ashikhe (10) is one of the most cited among the works of archaeologists in Harbin, which is not surprising: it KA. gave the first description of archaeological material culture moheskih tribes. After repatriation to Russia, he was the best connoisseur of Japanese in Irkutsk, trained many students.

In Harbin, formed a kind of center for the study of the North-East China. The peculiarity of his was the focus of natural history studies, which primarily relate to the period of pioneer study of the newly opened for the Russian territory. At the same time, the availability of skilled professionals has identified significant progress is in the archaeological and ethnographic study of Manchuria. History of days and the works of Russians in the study of ancient history of Northeast China are surely to be written. Find me in this direction is. I am sincerely grateful harbintsam, those who shared with me their memories. Among them, Olga Frolova, Konstantin Afanasievich and Natalia Zheleznyakova, Helena Petrovna Taskina and Ismail A. Mukhin, Oleg N. Thyssen

. Hope, . we are all together, . including the new generation will be able to retain a grateful remembrance of Russian Harbin, . his people, . that, . have been separated from their native land, . managed to maintain their roots and with dignity, went through all the trials, . that fell to their share,

. Notes

. 1.Bolshinstvo these remittances is placed in the different editions of the journal Harbin Beyfan venu in the first volume of the Compendium of translated materials on archeology and ethnography Heyduntszyana (Heilongjiang Kaogi mintszu tszylyao iventszi), edited by U Vensian
. (Harbin, 1991, 244 pp., 350 thousand. characters)
2.Melihov GV. Manchuria distant and near. - M., 1991;
He. Russia emigration in China (1917-1924 gg.). M., 1997
. 3.Ssylki on the results of research scientists in Harbin, . analysis taking into account the latest achievements of the Far Eastern archeology can be found in many of Novosibirsk and the Far Eastern archeology, . dealing with the history of material, . spiritual and ethnic history of the peoples of East Asia,
4.Alkin SV. VY. Tolmachev in China (1922-1942) / / Second Bersovskie reading. Ekaterinburg, 1994. - P.18-21.
5.Vpervye most complete materials Tolmacheva Harbin and other archaeologists of Russian origin, have been highlighted in the monograph VE. Laricheva Paleolithic of North, Central and East Asia (Novosibirsk, 1969, 1972). There were also posted photos of researchers.
6.Iskrenne grateful for this new information for me Bronislava Borisovna Ovchinnikova (Ural State University, Mr.. Ekaterinburg).
7.Alkin SV. Archaeological and ethnographic research VV Ponosov in Manchuria / / Second reading of the name G. Nevelskoy. Khabarovsk, 1990. - P.113-117;
He. Archaeological and anthropological studies of VV Ponosov in Manchuria / Beyfan venu. Harbin, 1991. - 2. - P.110-111 (in Chinese). This work is mainly based on the biography of VV. Ponosov compiled VN. Zhernakova (Series Russians in Australia - 3. - University of Melbourne, 1972). Since it introduced me KA. Zheleznyakov. A copy of this publication has kindly sent me later editor of the series NM. Kristesen. 8.Tissen O.N. Scouts-przhevaltsy / / On the Hills of Manchuria. - 33 - Novosibirsk, 1996. - P.5.
9.Pismo A.S. Lukashkin VE. Laricheva from 6.03.1967 g. I express my sincere thanks to Vitaly п•п©пTяLп¦п+п+п¦пTя+я¬ Laricheva for giving me the opportunity to use the materials of this correspondence.
10.Zapiski Harbin Society of Naturalists and ethnographers. - 3. - Harbin, 1946. S. 47-61.

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