Lise Meitner (Meitner)( Scientific)
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Biography Lise Meitner (Meitner)
Name Lise Meitner (Meitner), . one of the first famous women scientists, . less well known in Russia, . than, . example, . names of Sofia Kovalevskaya or Maria Sklodowska-Curie, . however, its role in the formation of nuclear physics as an independent branch of science can not be overemphasized.,
. Lise Meitner was born Nov. 7, 1878 in Vienna
. Strange coincidences happen, . but the same day, . only 11 years earlier, . Warsaw is the other girl named Maria, . which will be destined to more fame, . although they will work in the same area, . and scientific achievements of each will be unique,
. What could have played a role - or the fate of those same 11 years, . now difficult to say, . but the fact remains, . entire two Nobel Prize Maria Sklodowska-Curie were a record of achievements in science for women (an article about Maria Sklodowska-Curie read on our server).,
. But back to Lise Meitner
. In 1905 graduated from the University of Vienna, . Lisa began her scientific career in the laboratory Otto Hahn in Berlin as a visiting researcher, . from 1912 to 1933 worked at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Chemistry, . which in 1918 led the Department of Physics, . and at the same time since 1912 - the University of Berlin (since 1926 Professor),
. After the establishment of a fascist regime Lise Meitner, a Jew by nationality, had been subject to harassment by the authorities and was forced to emigrate to Sweden, where since 1938, became a member of the Nobel Institute.
Works Lise Meitner were the areas of nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry. Together with Otto Hahn Meitner developed a method for isolating products Alpha-decay (1909), . established a presence in the spectra of monoenergetic groups of beta rays (1911) and showed, . that they are the result of internal conversion of gamma-rays, . discovered protactinium (1918) and several other radioactive isotopes, . investigated the nuclear isomerism, . radioactive transformations, . first described and correctly interpret the emission of Auger electrons,
. In 1922-24 developed the idea of discrete energy states of nuclei. In 1932 Meitner was among the first conducted nuclear transformations under the action of neutrons. In 1939, gave a theoretical explanation (together with O. Frisch), Hahn and Fritz Strassmann, who as a result of bombardment of uranium with neutrons detected among the products of nuclear reactions of barium. Meitner explained the observed phenomenon as a new type of splitting the atom - nuclear fission of uranium into two fragments, thereby introducing the term "division" in nuclear physics and predicted the existence of a chain reaction of nuclear fission.
. After retiring in 1960, Meitner lived in the UK
. Lise Meitner died Oct. 27, 1968, a few days before his 90 th anniversary
. Known curious itoriya, . as in the early 20-ies of the last century a Berlin correspondent of the newspapers reported his readers, . Lise Meitner that she defended her dissertation, entitled "Problems of cosmetic Physics" - "space physics" has been transformed into "cosmetic", . she seemed so unreal possibility, . that a woman can engage in such complex and, . certainly, . purely male affair, . as space exploration.,
. And some seven decades later, in memory of a brilliant female scientist Lise Meitner, respectively, in recognition of outstanding scientific merit, 109-th element of the Periodic Table of Elements DI
. Mendeleev was named in her honor.