Yuri Kondratyuk( One of the pioneers of space)
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Biography Yuri Kondratyuk
(1897-1941) - one of the pioneers of space. In 1916 he graduated from high school in Poltava. In 1914-15 interest in the problems of interplanetary travel, and soon graduated from handwritten work on these issues: 'Those who will read to build' (1918-19), in which, regardless of K. E. Tsiolkovsky original method derived the basic equation of the rocket, . gave a description of the scheme, and 4-stage rocket to the oxygen-hydrogen fuel, . combustion chamber with a checkerboard arrangement of nozzles and other oxidizer and fuel, . paraboloidal jets, . TNA for fuel, . Regulators, . missile control system of gyros with a drive for turning the output of the nozzle and the use of floating gyroscopes for orientation,
. In this work, Kondratyuk suggested: use of atmospheric drag for braking rockets during the descent to save fuel for energy savings on flights to celestial bodies show their spacecraft to orbit an artificial satellite, . and landing on their rights and return to the spacecraft to use a small take-off and landing apparatus, . separated from the spacecraft, have a supply base spacecraft in orbit ISL, or on the Moon, . using solar, . produce fuel from lunar rocks, using the gravitational field of colliding celestial bodies to dorazgona or inhibition of the spacecraft during flight in the solar system,
. In the same work Kondratyuk consider: the use of solar energy using mirrors raisers for the needs of spacecraft systems and large mirrors on the orbits of artificial satellites for coverage of the planets, . changes in their climate, . for interplanetary signaling electrostatic,
. RD, working on cathode rays, powders and liquids tonkopulveriziruemoy
. In 1929, in Novosibirsk, his book - 'The conquest of interplanetary space', . which defined the sequence of the first stages of space exploration, . more detail by the majority of the problems listed above and made some additional suggestions: rocket-artillery supply of IP from the ground; use as fuel for rocket fuels of some metals with a high calorific value, . metalloids and their hydrogen compounds, . particularly borohydrides,
. Kondratyuk investigated the problem of thermal protection of spacecraft during their motion in the atmosphere. Learned and practical interest are the description of the device parts of interplanetary spacecraft, its controls and stabilization. The writings of a number of issues Kondratyuka rocket dynamics, rocket, etc.. problems associated with the development of outer space, find new solutions, many of which are used for the development of space. Along with the development problems of space known Kondratyuka inventive activity in the area of industrial energy, etc.. areas. Name Kondratyuka named a crater on the Moon.
Years of life
In general, the history of science there are many people with fascinating biographies: Leonardo da Vinci, Franklin, Galois, Arago ... But hardly in the history of space man, whose life would be so mysterious and would include so many obscure places, like the life of a man who came into science in the name of Yuri Vasilievich Kondratyuk. Suffice it to say that half of his famous life he lived under assumed name and last name, and still do not know where and how he ended his days on earth. His real name - Alexander Ignatievich Sharg.
1897, June 21 - Alexander was born in Poltava Ignatievich Sharg. 1897, July 28 - Baptism in the Episcopal Cathedral of the Dormition of Poltava priest Mikhail Orda. The Godfather - Akim Nikitovich Datsenko, godmother, - Yekaterina Ivanovna Petrash.
Children and youth of the future scientist took place in an atmosphere of Ukrainian patriarchal way of life.
Family Tree of Alexander itself is of great interest.
Father's maternal line line
. Á¦- ------------------------------------ Á¦-
Á¦- General Slippenbach, party Poltava-Á¦-
Á¦- Á¦- tion of the battle ( "... Rosen goes through Á¦-
Á¦- Á¦- gorges, shall passionate Slippenbach ", Á¦-
Á¦- Á¦- AC. Pushkin "Poltava") Á¦-
. Á¦- Á¦- ----------------- T ------------------ Á¦-
. Á¦- Á¦-
. Peter I was kind captive general, gave him the title of Russia
. nobleman and a considerable number of serfs
. Descendants of General Schlippenbach
served as Russia's crown.
. . .
Á¦- Á¦- ------------------------------------ Á¦-
. Á¦- Slippenbach Anton Andreevich, born Á¦-
Á¦- about 1781, an artillery captain, Á¦-
Á¦- Á¦- subsequently postal inspector. Á¦-
. Á¦- Á¦- died of heart disease in 1836 Á¦-
. Á¦- Á¦- ----------------- T ------------------ Á¦-
. Á¦- Á¦-
. Á¦- ------------------------- Á¦- Á¦- ---------------------- -------------- Á¦-
. Sharg Bendit Srulevich Á¦-, Á¦- Á¦- Slippenbach Leo Antonovich, grandfather Á¦-
. Á¦- Á¦- Á¦- grandfather scientist scientist
. Born around 1830 Á¦-
Á¦- ------------------------- Á¦- Á¦- ---------------------- -------------- Á¦-
Sharg B.S. came from the village Krontingen Telzskogo County
Kovno province (now - the territory of Lithuania). Last Sharg
- Aramaic origin (in Hebrew, its synonym - Meer, in translation
- "Torch"). Sharg Bendit Srulevich died young and aunt scientist
. Friedrich Avgustovna Sharg (maiden name - Rosenfeld) married
. second marriage for the country doctor Akim Nikitovich Datsenko, baptized
. in Orthodoxy and adopted a new name - Catherine Kirillovna
. In cilu
. prevailing circumstances of their lives they, grandparents, steel
. educators and the real parents of future celebrity.
. Á¦- Á¦-
. Á¦- Á¦-
. Á¦- ---------------------- Á¦- Á¦- ------------------------- ----------- Á¦-
. Á¦- Sharg Ignatius Bene-Á¦- Á¦- Slippenbach Ludmila Lvovna mother Á¦-
. Á¦- diktovich father scientist Á¦- 1896 Á¦- scientist
. Born in 1875. As Á¦-
Á¦- Born in 1873 in +--->---- Á¦- daughter of a nobleman, was a brilliant Á¦-
Á¦- Berdychev. In baptism-+---<---- Á¦- home education, taught Á¦-
Á¦- SRI was a Catholic-Á¦- Á¦- French language and geography at Key-Á¦-
Skoe patronymic Á¦- Á¦- Á¦- Evo-Pechersk female school. Á¦-
Á¦- ----------------------- Á¦- ------------------------- ----------- Á¦-
1896, end - Ignatius Sharq, a student at Kiev University and Lyudmila Slippenbach became husband and wife.
1897 March - pregnant Ludmila Lvovna participates in "vetrovskoy" protests in Kiev (reason - self-immolation in the Peter and Paul Fortress in St. Petersburg Maria Narodnaya Volya wind).
The demonstration dispersed, many participants, including Ludmila Lvovna arrested. Conditions of detention or whether heredity, provoked nervous stress, to blame, but the mind is clouded by Ludmila Lvovna. After the birth of a son she never recovered from the disease and died in a shelter for the mentally ill around 1910.
In the same year, dies and her husband, Ignatius Sharg. He was the "eternal student". He studied in Kiev and St. Petersburg University, in Germany in Darmstadt Graduate School of Engineering. A man gifted, bright, but life does not have succeeded.
1909 - St. Petersburg Ignatius Sharg enter into a civil marriage with Helena Petrovna Giberman.
March 14 - the birth of Nina Ignatievna Sharg, half-sister of Alexander Shargeya. He was already 13 years.
Summer - Ignatius Sharg together with Elena Giberman and daughter arrived in Poltava to his mother and stepfather. There he died from "blood poisoning putrefactive". Thirteen Sasha Sharg remains an orphan. But, holding out, he performed his great destiny.
In high school gymnasium, he enjoys the problem of interplanetary flights. Powerfully and purposefully he goes to the goal - the development of theoretical bases and practical recommendations for future astronauts.
- End of the Kiev school with silver medal. Admission to the mechanical department of St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute.
May 24 - the conscription of courses warrant at one of the cadet school in St. Petersburg. Then - Turkish front.
After the revolution, as an officer of the tsarist army, Alexander Sharg twice forcibly mobilized in the White Army, and both times to defect from it. At the last escape, he loses all documents that remain in the headquarters of one of the parts of Denikin's army.
When the Bolsheviks were firmly established in power, Alexander Sharg realized what threatens it past the king and the White Guard officer
. 1921, . August 15 - mostly at the insistence of his stepmother, . Helena Petrovna Giberman (by second marriage - Kareyev), . is very loved and respected stepson, . Alexander Sharg, . living on a semi-legal position at the close people in the small town of Whiskey, . takes its name documents George (in the Orthodox pronunciation - Yuri) Vasilievich Kondratyuk,
C this time the scientist was already nepodvlasten over their future. This decision determined his whole life (but with the true facts of his biography, he certainly did not go from GPU). Yes, and serious crime in the change of name not. Data on this Kondratyuk: 1900, August 26 - born in the city of Lutsk, Volyn province. Parents, Vasily Pavlovich and Maria Antonovna - burgers. Student of Kiev University. 1921, March 1 - cmert from pulmonary tuberculosis. His brother Vladimir Kondratyuk taught in one of Kiev schools, where she studied Nina Sharg, sister of Alexander. Helena Petrovna Giberman-Kareeva persuaded him to hand over documents to Alexander. This mystery, but Alexander himself, knew a few people and they kept it for many years. Helena Petrovna told her daughter Nina just before death. In 1977, Nina Ignatyevna Sharg gave written testimony of the Special Commission of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine on the circumstances of the change of name and the names of her half-brother Alexander Ignatyevich Shargeem.
1930, July 31 - Yuri Kondratyuk arrested and convicted on charges of sabotage of Soviet power. For a long time he was "under the hood". Then a version that in 1941, while in the militia, he fled to the Germans and later worked with Wernher von Braun on the development of Germanic missile V-2 ".
In fact, date and place of death or the death Kondratyuka unknown.
July 4 - Kondratyuk goes to the front of the Moscow militia. He wrote in the Kyiv region. Kondratyuk defined in the company communications 2 Infantry Regiment divisions of the national militia of the Kiev region.
the night of July 7 - the regiment on foot marched out of Moscow.
July 31 - the construction of the line of defense at the edge of the forest under the town of Kirov (formerly Smolensk, now - Kaluga region).
August 29 - 21 Division of the national militia pereimenovy-Vaeth in the 173rd Infantry Division of the Red Army.
October 3 - fighting with the enemy.
The fate Kondratyuka-Shargeya Unknown. Some of his colleagues, have written memoirs about the scientist believe October 3, 1941 date of death Kondratyuk. However, more tshatelnye studies undertaken in recent years have shown that this view was based on circumstantial evidence and assumptions, ex-soldiers.
Finally, were sought and documents to refute this version of. Were found out payroll for allowance - for November and December 1941 and January 1942. Signed Kondratyuka them his autograph, which is stored in the archives of the Academy of Sciences, are completely identical, which confirmed the special assessment with the use of all means of modern technology.
Thus, it can be argued that in January 1942, the scientist was still alive. The rest - mystery ...
The main result of his life - was published in Novosibirsk on equity (circulation - 2000 copies) book "The conquest of interplanetary space".
Material prepared Sergey Monakhov. Photograph provided by Alexander Glushko.