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Nikolai A. Pilyugin

( The founder of the domestic systems of autonomous control missile and rocket-space complex)

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Biography Nikolai A. Pilyugin
photo Nikolai A. Pilyugin
Founder of the domestic systems of autonomous control missile and rocket-space complex - Academician H. A. Pilyugin, legendary member of the Council of Chief Designers of missile and space rocket technology, who led P. P. Korolev

. Labor way Nikolai Alekseevich began in 1926, . when after 9 class-ing the school began working as a fitter in the central gas dynamics Institute (TsAGI), . quickly mastered their craft and, . reaching in its high level of professionalism, . become particularly skilled master of his craft - faynmehanikom,
. A young worker noticed. N. Tupolev, and Nikolai Alekseevich directed study. In 1930. he entered the Moscow Higher Technical School of. N. E. Bauman, from which he graduated in 1935, receiving a degree inzheneramehanika. His thesis project - drawings, explanatory note - was dedicated to the development of the instrument 'Zhirograf', designed to record the results of measurements of angular velocities of the aircraft on its three principal axes as a function of time. His appearance this device must Pilyugina student initiative, which has embodied it in the metal, having returned to work at TsAGI. Priborsamopisets attached to the aircraft, registered on paper, the slightest change in angular position of the aircraft at the corners of the roll, pitch rate and. Transcripts on the ground gave the picture of the behavior plane in the air. More than half a century pilyuginsky 'Zhirograf' used in flight testing and operational development of the aircraft.

Until 1941. Nikolai worked at TsAGI, and then moved a division from him Flight Test Institute, where he focused on the development of airborne automation and test autopilot. In 1943, Mr.. master's thesis. In 1944, Mr.. was transferred to the Division of NII-1 missile technology, created based on missile research institute, the position of chief of the special laboratories. In 1944, Mr.. in the ad hoc group of NII-1 for parts delivered there and the remnants of the German ballistic missile V-2 studied the layout and design-a power circuit of the rocket and its management scheme (CS). Group was able to understand and to restore the scheme of pnevmogidroshemy V-2, to calculate its main characteristics and possible flight paths. Pilyugin led the work on the GC, as has already had experience of research and design of automatic control systems with gyroscopic devices, as well as working off the aircraft autopilot. Young people's commissar of armaments D. F. Ustinov, praised the results of. Nikolai received a medal "For Courage '. In the summer of 1945. a group of specialists, who later headed P. P. Korolyov, he was sent to Germany, where he participated in establishing a center UQ Study design of the German V-2 rocket, technical and technological documentation. The work of this center was completed in 1946. project documentation, which then became the basis for the design of national missile R-1.

On the proposal of C. P. Queen H. A. Pilyugin since 1946 - chief designer of autonomous control systems at the Research Institute and a member of the Council of Chief Designers was established with. P. Korolev. Decisions of the Council, they say, were mandatory for all ministers.

In early 1947. team, headed by H. A. Pilyugin, enthusiastically continued to develop automated control system of the national ballistic missile R-1. Though it was the prototype of the German V-2, P-1 have been designing and making, focusing on the domestic element base and Materials. In many ways, had to go unbeaten through, most components of control systems had to develop, produce and test the first time. Nikolai was able to successfully cope with this task, and national ballistic missile R-1 flying steadily, with higher aircraft performance and accuracy than the V-2.

Indigenous missile technology rapidly improved. Ballistic missiles in a short time began to acquire a qualitatively new features, . their flight and performance characteristics are improved largely due to management systems, . which always reflected the progressive solution of scientific-technical and strategic challenges of creating a missile, . that stimulated the development of its new properties,

Specific milestones in creative ways to chief designer H. A. Pilyugin were the development and improvement of the autonomous management of domestic IRBM P-5. Advances in the design, . retrofitting and modernization of this missile became the basis of the achievements, . which brought indigenous missile technology at the world level and led not only to the parity of nuclear forces the United States and the USSR, . but also to the scientific, technical and industrial parity space rocket industries of both countries and even faster growth of domestic strategic nuclear forces to the way their home,

. In developing the control system missile system R-5 and its modifications have been solved problem, . which subsequently provided the benefits of autonomous control systems to the radio systems on the precision characteristics, . most significant for missile,
. Among the most important decisions in this area should include provision of: - the angular stability of statically unstable ballistic missiles in the external (atmospheric) and internal (noise of electric control signals) disturbances, . parry which is connected with the synthesis of multilevel system of automatic control of the object with substantially variable parameters,
. The practical significance of solving this problem goes far beyond just the sustainability of the angular positions of the missile body in space. Along the way developers actually missiles were capable of being a significant reduction in structural weight of its units in favor of a separating warhead within reach Mr. firing range - the stabilization of the center of mass (CM) missiles in the space in time,
. The structure functions of SU were introduced, and instrument implemented CM stabilization of motion in the normal (system NS) and lateral (system BS) directions, the regulation of the velocity parameters in time through a system of regulation of the apparent velocity (RKS). Thus managed to significantly reduce the disturbance parameters of the trajectory the rocket, . make it move along a trajectory, . close to the calculated, . and achieve the accuracy of the missile hit the target with the help of analog and electromechanical of computers, . had limited accuracy characteristics,

Most difficult, with many adjustable parameters and sources of disturbances, was the rocket R-7, the famous' Seven ', which became the basis for creation of space rockets' Satellite', 'East', 'Sunrise', 'Moon', 'Lightning', ' Union 'and other.

Under the direction of H. A. Pilyugin developed control systems of many rocket and missile and space systems and space probes, developed the theory of designing precision SU aircraft, developed methods of analysis and synthesis of complex well-functioning even when individual failures of some elements of complex dynamic systems, . widespread practice of designing SU; established scientific methodology of experimental devices working off the ground, . subsystems and SU in general and test facilities for this purpose,
. On a scientific basis has evolved collection methodology, . processing and analysis of measurement data of test management systems in ensuring the proper functioning of ratings SU, . matching mode of operation specified documentation, . experimental and theoretical evaluations of the accuracy characteristics of the SU, . obtained using the instrument error models of the complex command devices on the basis of a priori estimates of error management and performance of its reliability,

Since 1958. N. A. Pilyugin, corresponding member, and since 1966 member of the Academy of Sciences. In 1967. He was elected to the Presidium of the Academy. In 1956, Mr.. Nikolay was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor in 1961, after a triumphant flight around the earth, Yuri Gagarin, the highest rank is assigned to a scientist for the second time. Bronze bust of the hero is set in St. Petersburg. In the Southern District of Moscow has a street named after academician H. A. Pilyugin.

On the shelves of libraries are not worth a volume of works of Academician H. A. Pilyugin in beautiful bindings. He did not try to publish the printed works and to receive an inventor's certificate: the hard facts of the Rules of design, production and testing of advanced control systems that are not contributing. Publications as a matter of secondary importance, in what was a consistent. And even then, when the priority was for the idea Pilyugin, he was not involved in the statement of authorship. It would be wrong Nikolai Alekseevich in this blame. Each of his working day without the rest was crowded rebuses and riddles, . which arose as a result of a large number of tests of control systems of numerous defense systems and the introduction of new technologies in production in the manufacture of equipment, . besides, . be taken into account and stringent custodially, . that substantially burdened the already troublesome business publications,

Nikolai signed hundreds of volumes of advance projects, preliminary designs, reports on research developments, descriptions and instructions. No one questioned the right of a co-author Pilyugin, because he was always a generator of ideas, attentive analyzer proposals and development of their associates, firm and consistent conductor of ideas and proposals into practice. Nikolai went into all, . that related to innovation, . to the details and specific solutions, . gave clear and detailed guidance on the areas of research, . introduction of new technologies, . improving the productive base and develop the most advanced methods for designing devices, . aggregates, . systems,
. Acutely aware of the new. Do not put up with hack-work and 'spihotehniki' in. Loved, valued and advanced staff savvy, persistent, working on the result. Not fond memo and explanatory notes. Believed that everyone should do what was agreed without formalism and red tape. Sign only what has been discussed. Skillfully and effectively used the Kremlin's phone. Many times a day raised the receiver 'Kremlevka' and negotiated with numerous subscribers. Formulated and solved the issues methodically. At one point in the conversation, to avoid confusion, but remembered. Pilyugin could argue on technical matters until a decision is not accepted. Following the decision, it was impossible not to do. Sternly exacted for failure to.

Nikolai had a sense of personal responsibility. When analyzing the causes of emergency forced the staff to look for them especially in their. Outside the company Pilyugin not let anyone in his presence to recover to its employees: all assumed the, . and, . as described, . 'home' versed in justice or information, . a position to assess the activities of employee misconduct or,

. Speaking about the role Pilyugina as a scientist-organizer, . who made a great contribution to the development of missile technology and management systems, . must first emphasize, . that he aspired to the complexity of technical solutions and organization of production, . expanding the role of management in the missile system as a whole, . not as a set of subsystems,
. This line Nikolai conducted sequentially, and she gave rezultat.Pilyugin created a unique association nauchnoproizvodstvennoe. Its uniqueness lies in the fact that the design and manufacture of devices and subsystems of computer complex, nnertsialnoy system and the necessary on-board interface are conducted within the enterprise odnoyu. This is an important precondition for efficiency, . quality and affordability development of control systems of missile systems, . that was the decisive factor in the survival pilyuginskoy firms during the general crisis of industry and finance, . which country is currently experiencing,

Nikolai supervised all development of management systems to ensure priority of the USSR in space exploration and defense of the country's missile technology Sergei Pavlovich Korolev, himself participating in these studies. It cooperated Pilyugin and other creators of missile systems:

Michael Kuzmnchem Yangel, Vladimir Nikolayevich Chelomey, Alexander Davidovich Nadiradze and t. d. Change of generations of control systems of missile defense systems is rapid: rapidly improve their performance and quality. However, the general public Nikolai became known not for Defense Development, . but as a 'navigator space routes', . a scientist, . the leading role which the control system for space launch vehicles, . as well as by the spacecraft of the first and subsequent generations for a soft landing on Venus, and Lupu, . for overflight Magnifiers, . satellites of Mars and T,
. d

. With active personal involvement Pilyugin and under his leadership management system (with pilyuginsknmi gyroscopes) three-stage carrier rocket Proton-1 ', . designed to launch space stations 'Salute', . and four-Proton-2 'rocket block D, . providing vehicles circled the Moon 'probes' landing landers on the surface,

. At a time when addressed the issue of expansion of cooperation in the development of the giant project 'Energiya'-'Buran', . Nikolai chose for himself a new task - to create a system of control is returned to the ship 'Buran', . ceding work on the traditional system of governance for themselves launcher Energia his pupil-academician of Ukraine Vladimir G. Sergeyev,
. Nikolai has not led to see the flight of the spacecraft 'Buran' and its elegant accurate the world's first automatic landing, and in adverse conditions of strong crosswinds. Ship operated by SU inertial coordinate the work of nearly fifty of its related systems that provide flight of the spacecraft and its landing at the airport of destination.

Nikolai with enviable speed and decisiveness pick up new ideas. He acted on the rule: if is possible in principle, it means that we must act and create.

Commence work in the gyroscope in the institute Pilyugina due not only to his old love for such devices, beginning with 'Zhirografa', but to circumstances arising. They stem from different estimates in the floating gyroscope in the direction of 1956-1965. chief designers Viktor Ivanovich Kuznetsov and Nikolai A. Pilyugin. Viktor no hurry to give way on board the rocket float giroblokam, assuming they do not further elaborated. In some Kuznetsov was right. Nikolai, by contrast, sought in every way the use of flotation devices, assuming that the defect structure of the device and its manufacturing technology to better understand the process of experimental design work in the management. And he was right: the defects, in fact, revealed in full and even more than expected.

Faced with reluctance to 'float' by Kuznetsova, Nikolai in 1959. began to lay the foundations for the design and production of gyroscopes float under his patronage, and later in his institute. Such a move was very risky, so like a gyroscope - an area not only the finest technology, but the traditions of craftsmanship and training, which for years chosen for such works. Design and development of good girobloka as good a rocket engine, last 8-10 years. Compete with professional gyro firms against the backdrop of steady-state requirements for their fine product, it would be a waste of time and resources. But as a man of action and a master of simple solutions, as a talented engineer Pilyugin not take the beaten path a gyroscopic devices with the characteristics of the same quality of professional development or superior to their. Nikolai, . relying on colleagues and students, . chose the path, . which ensures the desired outcome for the accuracy of missile control, . but it differs from traditional solutions, . - Path-launch calibration of precision instruments for the command sequence diagram, . producing no loss in relation to a competing alternative in terms of readiness of the missile for launch,
. With traditional position - an adventure. But it turned out, if persistently and with determination, faith in the success with the attendant failure to work, you can create brilliant achievements. This kind of adventurous ideas lay this argument: the professionals make the device, . ensure a given accuracy characteristics in order to achieve the accuracy and stability of missile control during the whole mezhreglamentnogo period (from six months or more), . but they are only needed at the site of active flight, . t,
. e. within minutes. If this stability achieved, the prelaunch calibration of instruments will provide the necessary command-control accuracy. It is natural to trust in the knowledge of the acceleration of gravity at the point of installation of the device with an error, . not greater than ten-percent, . and the angular velocity of rotation of the Earth with an accuracy, . no more thousandths of a second of arc in the second time in the projections on track,
. This is a challenge, 'soft touch' for gyros, but the new and unusual for estimates (calibrations) of the source parameters of devices, affecting the accuracy of management. Thus was born and develops a new direction to the gyroscope. However, I must say, it could not take place without the onboard digital computer (BTSVM) high performance.

Go to the on-board discrete computation was yudnim of the most important strategic issues for which the required authority and the relevant properties of the character of Nikolai Alekseevich. As always, the crucial period when new ideas gained force, there is support to accelerate the modernization process, is - wait to suck up to the end of the aging technology. Nikolai did not wait, and boldly took up the establishment of management systems based on BTSVM as the central management level. All the so-called technical measures swooped down on the pioneering. Development of production required of microelectronic devices, . circuit design and structural solutions SU, . ensure reliability, . creation of on-board software management system, . as well as means of debugging, . working out, . choice of devices for reconciliation and transformation of information flows, . exchange and t,
. n.-all this had to do first. There was not only a technological change, but change the style of thinking.

By 1970, Mr.. own BTSVM was created. Then in the Research Institute of Automation and Instrumentation, all the control systems of missile systems were equipped with gyroscopes and onboard computer equipment of its development.

Without a decisive head Nikolai Alekseevich would defeat the point of view, supporters of analog systems, are not yet fully realize their potential. And then, in nenarastayuschego finance the establishment of discrete devices, the country has lost a few years in scientific and technical race, fell behind to the world level.

The last strategic plan, the swan song of Nikolai Alekseevich, it was the task of independent determination of the azimuthal orientation of the sensing element gyroscopic instrument that defines the direction of flight of the launch vehicle, t. e. onboard autonomous her sight on the starting position. This allowed to give up 'sensitive' sighting system with its optical, surveying and gyroscopic devices, control platikami gyrostabilizers on the case and the special design of the launch facilities. Until his last days Nikolai daily directly involved in this issue. He held meetings in his office every day attended a bench trial, participating in them. I had to do 'unleashed' with surrounding objects foundation stands, sanding methodology of experiments and make the accuracy of the angular directions of the axes of measurement devices, not the worst share arcseconds. Viable solutions to this complex problem are obtained by his students, and created a system in operation.

The items listed is by no means a complete list of strategic issues, the success of the decisions which was assured energy, intelligence and skill, Nikolai Alekseevich Pilyugin. We could even mention the problem of remote inspection and technical diagnostics SU, remote control the procedural checks missile systems, management training missiles for launch and launch. Address these problems provided the high performance characteristics of missiles. I would like to stress once again that the scientific and technical problems can not be divorced from the personality of Nikolai Alekseevich. For him nothing but the work is almost non-existent. He had a hobby, but hobby intellectual and technical, at the level of the interests of the profession. Pilyugin, as it were 'collected' tape. Disassemble it, and studied design, especially fond of Japanese tape: it seems as fine-mechanic Nikolay great pleasure for a look inside. Pilyugin was a large collection of music recordings of various genres.

Many had to interrupt his vacation and appear to work on call Nikolai Alekseevich. No complaining! The main way was able to organize work, . so interesting and meaningful way to put all the problems, . and scientific, . and technical, . so trust people Mr. strengthen their confidence in the work, . make it a requirement and the basic content of life without slogans and appeals,
. There are special, as if intuitive, patriotism and sense of personal involvement in the great cause, headed by a very substantial and credible people.

Pilyugin disliked public attention. At committee meetings or meetings, where he was not the chairman, Nikolai tried to escape into the shadows, putting up somehow in the side. However, the views present themselves focused on his person: he was very venerable and impressive, although the physical parameters had a mean. In Pilyugin always felt kind of slow-indulgent inner strength that promotes the education of staff in a spirit of interest in work, in the spirit of a sports rage in the fight for the result. And there was Nikolai stern and tough, if someone started to hedge in advance, taking up a new job.

Opinion on Nikolai as a great worker, a respected scholar, an outstanding designer, a great experimenter and the test is absolutely correct.

All those who worked under him, unconditionally admit it. His memory is Bright.

CONTRIBUTION OF ACADEMIC N. A. Pilyugin to the domestic rocket to the 90-ANNIVERSARY General Designer of NPO Automation and Instrumentation Doctor. Tekhniki. In Science. L. Lapygin, Doctor. Tekhniki. Science With. M. Elm, rocket and space technology, TsNIIMash

. Encyclopedic reference
. Nikolai A. Pilyugin (1908-1982) - Soviet scientist in the field of automation and remote control, academician of the USSR (1966, Corresponding Member of 1958), since 1967 Member of the Presidium of the USSR, twice Hero of Socialist Labor (1956, 1961) ..
. He graduated from the Moscow Higher Technical School of. N. E. Bauman (1935), worked at TsAGI (1934-41), head of a number of research organizations, since 1946 the chief designer, since 1969 Head of the Department of the Moscow Institute of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automation (Professor since 1970). Under the leadership Pilyugina developed control system many RN, . Spacecraft and space probes, . created the theory of designing high-precision systems, aircraft control; developed methods of analysis and synthesis of complex dynamic systems, . received widespread adoption in the design of control systems; sozdny basis of designing control systems with computers and developed scientific methods and technical complexes of experimental testing,
. Member of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR 7-10-th convocation. Lenin Prize (1957), USSR State Prize (1967). Awarded 5 orders of Lenin, Order of the October Revolution and medals.

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