Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev( Astronaut Russia)
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Biography Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev
Astronaut Rossii.Rodilsya August 27, 1958 in Leningrad, now St. Petersburg. There is now living with his parents Constantine and Hope.
In 1978 he graduated from high school in 1981 after graduating from the Leningrad Mechanical Institute he was qualified as a mechanical engineer.
After graduation he worked at NPO Energia. He experienced equipment used in space missions, developed methods of work in space and participated in a ground control station. In 1985, when the failure occurred at the station Salyut-7, he worked as a group reconstruction, has developed methods for docking with the station and repair unmanageable its onboard systems.
Krikalev was selected for training for space flight in 1985 and in 1986 he completed basic training and was, at the time, sent to the group program shuttle Buran. In early 1988 he began training for his first long flight to the Mir station. Training included the preparation of EVA (at least six), docking with the new modules, the first test of the Moving astronaut and to work with the Second Soviet-French scientific expedition. Soyuz TM-7 was launched on 26 November 1988, the crew consisted of Commander Alexander Volkov, Krikalev and flight engineer of the French astronaut Jean-Loup ChrцLtien. Previous crew remained on station Mir is twenty-six days, marking the longest period of stay at the station six. After the previous crew returned to Earth, Krikalev, Polyakov and Volkov continued to conduct experiments aboard the Mir station. Due to the fact that the arrival of the next crew had been delayed, they prepared the station for unmanned and returned to Earth April 27, 1989
. In April 1990, Krikalev began preparing for his second flight as a member of the backup crew for the eighth long expedition to the Mir station, . which also included 5 spacewalks, . and work during the week of Soviet-Japanese crew,
. In December 1990, Krikalev began preparing for the ninth expedition to the Mir station, which included 10 spacewalks. Soyuz TM-12 was launched on May 19, 1991, with Commander Anatoly Artsebarsky, Krikalev and flight engineer and a British astronaut Helen Sharman. A week later, Sharman returned to Earth with the previous crew, and Krikalev and Artsebarsky remained on the world. Over the summer, they conducted six spacewalks, with various experiments and performed maintenance work on station.
In July 1991, Krikalev agreed to stay on the Mir station as flight engineer for the next crew (which was supposed to arrive in October), because the next two flights were combined into one. October 2, 1991 in place of a flight engineer of Soyuz TM-13 was employed Toktar Aubakirov, an astronaut from Kazakhstan, who was not prepared for the long flight. He and Franz Fibek, the first Austrian astronaut, along with Artsebarsky October 10 returned. Commander Alexander Volkov remained with Krikalev. After the change of crew in October, Volkov and Krikalev continued experiments on the world, carried out another exit into open space and returning to Earth on March 25, 1992.
Two flight Krikalev spent in space over a year and three months and performed seven spacewalks.
In October 1992, NASA announced that astronaut who has experience of space flight will fly on American shuttle. Krikalev was one of two candidates named Rossiyskim Space Agency for training with the crew of STS-60. In April 1993 he was declared the prime candidate. In September 1993, Vladimir Titov was selected to fly on STS-63, Krikalev prepared as his understudy.
Krikalev participated in STS-60, the first US-Russia joint flight of Space Shuttle. STS-60, which began Feb. 3, 1994, was the second flight of the module, Spacehab (Space Habitation Module) and the first flight of the WSF (Wake Shield Facility). During the eight-day flight of Discovery, the crew conducted a wide variety of scientific experiments in the field of materials science, as in the device WSF and in the module Spacehab, biological experiments and observations of the Earth's surface. Krikalev conducted significant portions of the Remote Manipulator. Following 130 orbits of flying 5,486,215 miles on Feb. 11, 1994 the ship Discovery landed at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. In this flight, Krikalev spent a further 8 days 7 hours and 9 minutes in space.
After STS-60 Krikalev returned to his work in Russia. He regularly visited the Johnson Space Center in Houston to work in Control Center, along with CAPCOM and personnel management in Russia, to support joint US-Russian flights. He podderzhval flight STS-63, STS-71, STS-74, STS-76. Krikalev was appointed the first crew aboard the International Space Station. In May 1998 three-member crew will fly on the Soyuz spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.
Hobbies: Hobbies: swimming, skiing, cycling and sport aviation and amateur radio communications in particular from space.
Married to Elena Terekhina from Samara. There is now living with her parents George and Faina. Children: Daughter of Olga, was born February 20, 1990.
Special Merit: A member of the national aviation teams in Russia and the Soviet Union, was a champion of Moscow in 1983 and the Soviet Union in 1986. During the space flight he was awarded the title of "Hero of the Soviet Union", was awarded the Order of Lenin, the French awarded the title of Officer of the Legion of Glory and the new title of "Hero of Russia". In 1994, NASA awarded a medal.