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GRZHEBIN Zinovy Isaevich

( Writer)

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Biography GRZHEBIN Zinovy Isaevich
Zinovy Isaevich Grzhebin was born in July 1877. G. Chuguyiv Kharkov province. In 1899. He graduated from the Kharkiv Art College, who is trained graphic artist and then studied in Munich, school W. Holloshi, and in Paris.

In March 1905. He returned to Russia with the intention to publish a satirical magazine. Then there was his first, business, the meeting with M. Gorky, which is the beginning of their cooperation. In December 1905 - January 1906. with his participation as an editor were published three issues of the satirical magazine "Bugbear", directed against the autocracy. As the editor was arrested and sentenced to a year in prison. At this time Grzhebin became widely known as the author of critical cartoons of top officials.

Since 1906. Grzhebin devoted himself entirely to publishing. He became one of the organizers of the publishing house "Rosa" (1906 - 1918 gg.), Headed the publishing house "Pantheon" (1907 - 1910 gg.), From 1907 to 1916. published the Northern collection, in 1916. participated with Gorky in the creation of the publishing house "Sail" and the newspaper "New Life".

After the February Revolution, A. Benoit Grzhebina included in the list of artists, whose participation was, in his opinion, preferably designed in that period, the Ministry of Fine Arts.

The fate of this man, whose activity can be evaluated very ambiguous, is closely intertwined with the history as Rossiyskogo foreign and Soviet Russia, and the eventful times of the detective character.

In August, 1918. contract was concluded between п-.п°. Gorky, A. Tikhonov, and. Ladyzhnikov and Z.I. Grzhebinym the organization publishing "World Literature". In accordance with this document, . created by the publishing house set itself the task of selection, . translation from foreign languages, . Maintenance reference apparatus, . notes and drawings, . and publication of works of foreign literature the second half of XVII - beginning of the twentieth century., . as well as selected works of Russian writers of the same period,
. Participants of the contract authorization from п-.п°. Gorky's contract with the Commissioner of Education to publish books "World Literature" of the means of the Commissariat. Single paragraph stipulates that "all the rights, obligations and responsibilities for implementing agreements and commitments entered into by п-.п°. Peshkov, the undersigned undertake a whole and undivided ". Sam Grzhebin headed production publishing department "World Literature", and in 1919. - Own publishing house, Chairman of the Editorial Board which became bitter (in the national literary publishing house "World Literature" and "Publisher Z.I. Grzhebina "appeared under the generalizing the definition of" Gorky's publishing house).

Exactly how to create and led п-.п°. Gorky, they were perceived and the Bolshevik leadership. This view was reflected in contemporary historiographical literature. Publisher Grzhebina mentioned not only as "Gorky" publisher. However, property rights in it were distributed differently. Contracts are publishing Grzhebina concluded with Soviet organizations, containing standardized wording that states: "State Publishing House in the person of its director VV. Vorovskogo the one hand, and Publishing Z.I. Grzhebina an owner Z.I. Grzhebina and editor of the book publishing п-.п°. Peshkov (Gorky), on the other hand, concluded a treaty in the following:.

And although it is M. Bitter over the entire history of existence and activities of these publishers was seen in Soviet Russia as their owner and manager, . actual owner has remained Grzhebin, . a long time to use the name of the writer to achieve their own goals,

History of relations between Gorky and Grzhebina used the latest in an ambitious attempt to monopolize the printing of works by Russian and Western classics to Soviet Russia, the complicated and confusing.

Gorky was a Soviet state in a special position. The essence of the relations of Soviet power to this outstanding writer and public figure expressed AV. Lunacharsky in its letter AI. Rykov September 18, 1920: "Suppose that in this area, completely innocent political field by feeding scientists, using their strength in non-political cultural field Gorky's working, to some extent, a carte blanche. Hood from this no one will ". This letter came to light as a result of the protracted conflict between the leadership of the country and Gorky on cooperation and, consequently, the financing of publishing activities Grzhebina.

More May 1, 1919, Mr.. in a letter to VV. Vorovsky Gorky wrote: ": From the painful experience" World Literature "and other initiatives of this kind, I am convinced that in Russia there is no possibility to print the book: printing machinery shaken, arms - not enough fuel - there is no. As a result of all this - there are no books in quantities large enough for the country:

Where is the exit from this situation? Him - in my opinion - find my old friend, Zinovy Isaevich Grzhebin, energetic man, and in the book actually experienced. He suggested publishing books abroad: And I very much ask you to help any way you can, Zinovy Grzhebinu implement this business. Yes, it will be a private enterprise, but where is another way to supply the country's spiritual food? ".

In the initial plans for publishing, according to the June 16, 1919, Mr.. the People's Commissariat of Education the note included the production of two series of books named by the author of "core" and "People". In the main series intended to publish works of Lily Brown, Voltaire, Dickens, Lesage, Lassalle, Flaubert, Anatole France, Balzac, Stendhal, Walter Scott and others. Edited and with an introduction by Fd. Batiushkov, F.K. Sologub, P. Grigorieva, MA. Kuzmin and others.

In parallel, under the direct supervision of Gorky, were preparing to publish a series of popular books, includes works from Mr.. Wells, M. Twain On. Wilde, A. France and other. The difference between the basic and popular series was greater adaptability to the latest poorly educated reader. Total for three years, scheduled to be issued approximately 2 000 pamphlets and 800 volumes of fiction. To implement these plans, Gorky was allocated 6 million. 657 thousand. Rub.

However, since the introduction of joint plans of Gorky and Grzhebina Soviet leadership in the person of the State Publishing House officials made it unequivocally clear that it did not intend to the same extent to finance the activities and the addition of both. June 5, 1919, Mr.. the first meeting of the Editorial Board of the State Publishing House in the presence of Lunacharskogo Vorovsky reported on the content of the proposals received by Gorky's support for private publishers Grzhebina and their joint plans to transfer to publishing Soviet Russia abroad,
. On the report Vorovskogo adopted two resolutions. On the first of them expected to limit the activities of the publishing house "World Literature" only Western European authors, taking out his plans for the works of Russian classics. By publishing Grzhebina resolution was harsher: "Reject government subsidies to the private publishing house Z.I. Grzhebin ". Suggest publisher "Z.I. Grzhebin "take over the printing of books produced by publishing house" World Literature ": the conditions of payment by the State Publishing House of the actual cost of printing and providing Z.I. Grzhebinu 5% of this amount to cover overhead.

Naturally, the 5% commission to arrange Grzhebina could not, so he left no attempt to persuade the leadership Narcompros approve and fund a plan of his own publishing company. Drawing for its development, Gorky Grzhebin figured that with his help will receive funds under the developed project. Universality of the publishing plan, . prepared Grzhebinym and Gorky, . had no equal in the world of publishing practice: there was literally no one branch of science and technology, . no area of public life, . which would not be proposing to undertake the publishing,
. Spectrum of planned publications were wide: from popular brochures to books, from textbooks to the capital monographs. Publisher assumed the preparation and public release of not only books, but even the maps and visual aids for schools and universities.

Such large-scale plans have caused bewilderment Vorovsky. He suggested Grzhebinu exert their energy, primarily for printing books "World Literature". However Grzhebin, once again using the name of Gorky to achieve their goals, effectively eliminating the activities of "World Literature". Instead, he began to enter into contracts with various government agencies and to obtain advances under the non-existent publications. Such advances, he managed to collect several million rubles.

Meanwhile, increased stimulation of the Soviet leadership of such a "publishing activities" Grzhebina. Having given promises and received advances Grzhebin no hurry to carry the books printed in Russia. But for his future plans he had to show at least some products, otherwise publishing Grzhebina could be completely separated from the huge market. To avoid such developments, . Grzhebin decided to publish a book Lunacharskogo "great coup, . thus attempting to kill two birds with one stone: to show their products in Russia and provide a pleasant service to man, . of which depended largely on the success of its future activities,

Shortly after the publication of this book on the front page of Pravda, 9 November 1919, Mr.. note appeared "strange misunderstanding," begins: "Before me is the directory publishing Z.I. Grzhebina - publishers obviously adventurous ". Author of the article drew particular attention to the last page of the directory where the program was printed a series of "Chronicles of the Revolution," announcing the upcoming publication of the memoir "Eminent revolution" L. Martov A. Potresov and B. Chernoff. The author asked Lunacharskogo book which opens a series of "how he got into this venerable warm company of" open enemies of Soviet power, and why his book was to be released from a private publisher, and not in the State Publishing House. It also pointed out that by releasing this book, Grzhebin used the name of the party's most popular writers in their own selfish ends. After this scandal, Gorky had to exert great efforts to mitigate its.

The first significant success came to the publisher Grzhebina April 23, 1920, Mr.. On this day a meeting of the Council of Labor and Defense, chaired by the VI. Lenin. At this meeting they discussed the proposal to postpone the printing Gorky abroad. This issue was decided in advance to consider at the Committee of People's Commissars of Foreign Trade, on 26 April. Chairman of the meeting and the keynote speaker was appointed head of the State Publishing House Vorovsky, . thus the question of allowing the two publishing houses ( "World Literature" and Grzhebina) to print their publication abroad was raised to the level of public policy,
. It was finally adopted a resolution: "Pending the restoration of the printing industry and an adequate supply of paper to acknowledge the need to print abroad for the country's most important publications:

. The next day, April 27, under the chairmanship of People's Commissars of Lenin approved the Commission's decision and determined the loan, opened Narkomvneshtorg State Publishing House for that purpose, amounting to 50 thousand
. f.st.

Encouraged by this decision, Grzhebin went to Germany for the organization of publishing books abroad

. In a memorandum "On the printing of books abroad" to the State Publishing House, describing the conditions germanskogo market, . Grzhebin gave this description existed in this country state of affairs: "In Germany, . still reeling from the effects of war, . its commercial and industrial traffic to this day still bears the imprint of a certain instability,
. Unstable currency, . unstable rates levies, . levied on books, . exported abroad (currently they are in relation to Russia are a very small charge on the cost of books, . but in relation to other countries, these charges are a huge percentage:),

Until now: never had a situation in which the production of books in Germany there would be dozens and even hundreds of percent more profitable than in other countries. You have to think that in the near future all the benefits and advantages will remain for the printing press in Germany:

Russian printing press in Germany - not a new thing that had to be organized from the very beginning. It is a rather considerable size existed before the war. Russian guides, dictionaries and scientific books published in Germany in the past, as the German publishers, and publishers from Russia.

In addition, there is no country where so easily could be arranged any foreign printing, as in Germany: There are a number of large publishing houses, have already organized a large Russian Branch (Ullshteyn, Elsner et al). Dozens of small and medium publishing houses, scattered throughout Germany (Berlin, Stuttgart, Leipzig, Frankfurt and Wiesbaden, even) also have a large set of Russian font.

Typesetters, the recruitment of teaching Russian in Germany is also quite enough. Russian compositors Germany draws to an unlimited number of avalanches of returning POWs from Russia, . where they come already familiar with the Russian language, . and willingly moving to a set of Russian, . paid, . as foreign, . and a half times more expensive ",

Meanwhile, skepticism about his activities did not disappear: at various levels of the Soviet state apparatus continued its discussion and criticism. So, 10 September 1920. the State Publishing House of the Petrograd came from the director Sevtsentropechatyu п-.п°. Gertika, in which he wrote extensively about the history of publishing Grzhebina from spring 1919. and concluded: "The mountain gave birth to a mouse. Of the hundreds of books set in the program, and dozens of books that made an order and get the makings released in light of more than than a year and a half 5, or, at best, 9 titles, including new, only 4, and the rest - Reprint. All publishing Grzhebina characterized by the following: buying almost all Russian writers, . including some of the communist, . and, . rumored, . for nothing; developed a great program and advertised its activities, . received huge orders, and huge advances and waited for a favorable time, . when it can appear on the book market a complete monopoly, . and yet, . that was the appearance of, . publishes from time to time useless pamphlets ",

But the name of Gorky continued to protect the publisher Grzhebina. Lunacharsky Rykov, wrote in a letter that should be allowed Gorky to express themselves in cultural and publishing work, inspires then Gorky, not to destroy publishing Grzhebina and put it under strict control, again, for the sake of Gorky

. However, such control, . perceived by Gorky as a sign of distrust in him by the Soviet government, . resulted in a dramatic decision to withdraw from the writer of all agencies, . they created, . virtually eliminated from the educational and publishing activities, . he led in Russia,
. This decision relates to the publishing house "World Literature", the Commission on the living conditions of scientists, expert commissions and publishing Grzhebina. The form in which it was clothed, wore the ultimate nature. In his letters to Lenin, 15 and 16 September 1920. Gorky wrote that he was "too old in order to allow a mock". And further: "Actually I was taken by the nose, not even three weeks, . a few months, . in continuation of whom I have yet been made a lot of work: drawn to the cause of popularization of scientific knowledge about 300 top scientists from Russia, . ordered, . written and put into print abroad dozens of books, etc.,

Now all my work turns to dust. Granted. But I have the motherland and the revolution of some merit, and old enough in order to allow further woode-vatsya at me, treating my work so carelessly and foolishly. No work, no talking with Sachs and others like him I will not. And anyway, I refuse to work in insti-ments, set up my work - in "World Literature", Publishing House Grzhebina in the "Expert Committee", in "of the Commission to improve the living conditions of scientists, and all other institutions where he worked to this day.

Otherwise, do not I. I'm tired of the mess ".

However, a special commission of the CC RCP (b) under the chairmanship of Rykov has taken steps to overcome the crisis overdue. It was decided that the allocation of grants for the printing of books abroad through Grzhebina. Gorky, gain support for their endeavors, did not go to break relations.

In the letter quoted above Gorky first mentioned the name of the head of the administrative and technical apparatus of the State Publishing House SM. Sachs-Gladnev, for a number of years had remained an implacable opponent of the writer in all of its overseas publishing projects.

Received in September 1920. direct indication of the CC not to complicate and not to impede the work of Comrade. Gorky, who in Petrograd and abroad for Books ", and strong recommendations on the" attentive and careful attitude to this matter, "Sachs led the fight against this decision. On the following day, September 23, he turned to Lenin, apparently wanting to compromise in his eyes Gorky as an ideological pan-ka. Peremptory harshness letter Sachs partly explains the sharpness of Gorky's rejection of this man. "I'm very sorry, - wrote Lenin Sachs - that in this matter (about Grzhebine - Gorky) As x-ditsya me to go against you. <:> With all the love to you I never thought it not the duty of the party to get along with people, . some reason or managed to win the B [Ashe] confidence <:> is notorious cases Miron Chernomazov and Roman Malinovsky, . whom I have not earned the trust and did not seek-Hsia, . because he did not trust them,
. Both provocateur enjoyed fame in the party: RV. Malinowski was elected a deputy workers IV by public thoughts, M.E. Chernomazov was secretary of the newspaper "Pravda". In my personal conviction, M. Bitter in the present revolution-tion plays a role is not much more honorable than that played by those two persons in the struggle against the tsarist government. Like them, he does not believe in the proletarian revolution, and its great advantage is that it is their future apostasy in the case - if we ever split - prepares the open, our eyes and our worthless GOSZNAK:

. Just as little as Myron and Roman, Maxim Gorky believed in the revolution-tion, as little as they are, he believes in the strength of the working of the International and the global revolution
. That for you, for us, for hundreds of thousands and millions, the likes of us, is an incentive to fight, leave a bitter cold.

<:> I categorically refuse to follow your advice of the Executive adopt the requirement t. Rykov <:> of a deep conviction that my hands flew to the RSFSR fatal mistake that would have been buried in all that incredible lot of work, which I never tired and date did the last 2 1 / 2 months.

I am very glad that, though not in such sharp terms, but in fact, [my view] is shared by the Editor and [ion] Collet-gy Educat [arstvennogo]. Publishing [atelst] va that it turns out, long-standing editorial [Nye] board of Pravda.

If I am mistaken, the mistake in a nice company Comrades. Bukharin Meshcheryakova etc.

. I always loved you <:> You still stand high above all, . as embodied the conscience of the party! In my estimation Grzhebina - Gorky me particularly vexed and hurt, . that you trust chelove-ku, . which I see the embodiment of your opposition ",

In October - as a result of the conflict with Gorky - Sachs was removed as head of the State Publishing House, but shortly after appointed representative of the State Publishing House abroad. Gorky protested against this, once again defending the publishing abroad, in a letter to Lenin dated 2 November 1920

. What explains this opposition and the leadership Gorky State Publishing House in the early 20's.? Investigations in recent years, often touching this question, do not give a full answer to it, believing that everything boiled down to ideological differences

Meanwhile, the struggle with the publishers Grzhebina - Gorky, carried out in the most active form, could be explained by other reasons than the desire of the Bolsheviks to the ideological monopoly. Conditions in which it occurs, suggests that officials are not always involved in the Soviet leadership to the issues of publishing activities, guided solely by the interests entrusted to the case. It is likely that this struggle was born in a clash of commercial interests of various groups in the leadership of the State Publishing House. At the head of one of them, himself not knowing that turned out to be M. Bitter. Another "head" Sax-Gladnev.

In his letter of 4 March 1921. EG. Lundberg, Head of the Scientific and Technical Department of the Supreme Economic Council, established in Berlin in January 1921, Sachs, wrote: ": Now the whole question is whether, in order not only to the calculation, but in practice show that Grzhebin the hell do we need. We must expedite the printing of books dealing, . the center of gravity of the reasons, . usually disgusts me, . have not moved to the most important and useful things, . and those, . which may be prepared especially soon, . and we can play a useful service in terms of visual instruction simpletons Soviet economic reality ",
. This lexicon author of the letter suggests the existence of some personal interest in the outcome of the fight started.

Further reinforces the suspicion is an e-mail EG. Lundberg Sachs: ": Samuel Markovich, . in the field of publishing, I have no vanity and ambition, . but I ask you in our common interest to bring to the attention of the center of all the successes, . For cheapness, . you yourself specify:, . is the most powerful weapon against Grzhebina ",

. What are these "common interests"? Can assume, . that some officials in the leadership of the State Publishing House, . in enough tight control by the state for financial discipline, . attempted to exercise independent business abroad, . remaining at the same time on the Soviet public service,
. On such an assumption is tempting further correspondence Sachs-Gladnev with Berlin. So, save the order Zaks book warehouse "Moscow", whose owner, by a strange coincidence, was a man with exactly the same last name - Zaks. In a letter to the Lundberg in Berlin Zaks-Gladnev, . naming the owner of the book warehouse "to its namesake", . "strongly" requested "in a matter of urgency to immediately send almost all of it, . I asked a number of triple, . against that "in order to form an order for placement abroad,
. And then followed a list of almost the entire range of the Berlin company. However, literally, at the same time, in a letter to Lenin dated March 7, 1921, Sachs has once again sharply criticized the idea of Gorky's foreign book-printing.

The point was as follows. In February, 1921. Bitter sent Lenin composed of short "Abstracts of printing overseas editions of" World Literature "". In this paper, he suggested, because of the absence in Russia of paper and technical capabilities, fully transfer printing of books abroad. According to preliminary calculations, transferred to Gorky his companion Grzhebinym, it followed that the sale of books published abroad, this project will not only pay off, but will also free to send in Soviet Russia from 10 to 15 thousand. copies of each published in a book by. To implement this plan, Gorky asked to allocate "World Literature" 1 million. DM and to send a representative to Berlin publishing

. It should be noted, . that a relatively short period of time, . around mid-1921 to mid-1922., . situation in the Russian book market of European countries, . really, . evolved in such a way, . that such a transfer of publishing activities of the RSFSR abroad was not only economically justified, . but could potentially profitable,
. The trend of increased demand for Russian literature in exile environment was time understood Grzhebinym and Gorky, the Soviet leadership offered to this project. Who exactly was the author of the partners of the ideas, set for today does not seem possible, but in the documentary form was clothed Gorky. Report on printing abroad, "World Literature", signed by Gorky, contained an analysis of the European market of Russian literature and based on information provided by the publisher Ladyzhnikov in Berlin and published by Bonnier in Stockholm. However, it should immediately make a reservation: the very bitter negotiations with publishing companies did not engage. All the links that existed in the report on foreign publishing firms were provided by none other than Maxim Gorky, as Grzhebinym, and treated the situation from his point of view and, in the sense that it was the most profitable. In the plans presented, and bitter Grzhebin based on the following considerations: "According to the publishers and the publishing house Bonnier Ladyzhnikov Russian books sold in Europe, apart from America, in an amount ranging from 5 to 10 thousand. copies. Take the minimum number: 5 thousand. copies.

Cost of books the size of World Literature (20 printed pages), with a circulation of 10 thousand. instances equal to Germany (on accurate data available for the Z.I. Grzhebina) 5 Germanic brands. The selling price of books at present - 20 marks. Less 5% discount bookseller, and organizational costs - net profit equal to 5 Germanic brands.

In other words: each sold abroad, the book provides an opportunity to expel into Russia free of charge one copy.

For the business organization will need a revolving fund of 1 million. Reichsmarks to release the first 20 thousand. books.

With skillful organization of the market and the inclusion of America and Czechoslovakia, it is possible to significantly increase the circulation of foreign books. Under this condition, Soviet Russia might be free from 10 to 15 thousand. copies of each book published abroad:.

Meanwhile, accumulating more information about unfair performance Grzhebinym commitments. Upon request, the State Publishing House in the Cheka was prepared dossiers on Grzhebina. Among other things, the file contained the following serious allegations: "Until 1917. counterfeit bills: That they know all the writers and staff of the former publishing house "Rosa".

In 1917, Mr.. fraud with paper. Receive papers for the socialist press, sold for a free prices (information can give t. Yagoda, management [rectifying] cases [s] the Cheka).

1918 - 1920 to. Unfair counterpart in Russia: received from a number of institutions (the Moscow Soviet Tsentropechat, military establishments, the State Publishing House) more than 23 million. rubles as an advance for the book, which he was supposed to publish, but so far no one single book is not passed.

Unfair counterparty abroad. November 15, 1920, Mr.. he concluded in Berlin on a contract with Swedish company for 5 million. books worth 5 million. kr. Prices of the Swedish company: no less than 4 times more expensive than the prices that are the same Grzhebin had this time in Germany.

Grzhebin did attempt to join the strike, with German publishers, increasing prices ".

At the same time from various Soviet institutions flocked to Moscow information about the failure publishing Grzhebina its obligations and the vast advances received by his firm. Thus, the letter did not set the author (official "Sevtsentropechati") dated 8 September 1920. provided information that Grzhebin took orders for them to produce the planned book, with orders appear dozens of names and orders are usually accompanied by advances. In Sevtsentropechati, allegedly, had three copies of such orders, where the publisher has received substantial advance payments. The letter noted, . that a half years of cooperation Grzhebinym were issued by order of the organization works 5 Authors: Sukhanov - 26 000 copies, . Lunacharskogo - 7 000, . Gorky on Tolstoy - 15 000, . Bitter and children - 20 000, . and Stroeva about Gorky - 20 000, . with the largest of them were only the first two, . others - brochures and leaflets,

December 16, 1920, Mr.. a meeting of the editorial board of the State Publishing House, which were heard obtained from printing department VSNKh documents, negatively characterized the activity Grzhebina abroad. They cited concrete facts of speculative transactions Grzhebina with German firms, . when Grzhebin and its representatives, . acting on behalf of the State Publishing House, . demanded from publishers and printers to give them a certain percentage of orders in their favor,
. Extract from the minutes of the board of Printing Division of the State Publishing House of Representatives stated: ": invalid observed facts, . such as: knigozakazchik Grzhebin, . on behalf of the State Publishing House, . gives the largest orders, . while taking a printer for each edition of a certain percentage, . not only for themselves, . but for a number of implicated persons, . while the nominal price increases are often up to 80%,
. Considering the inadmissibility of such phenomena, the speakers offered to pay very serious attention to this phenomenon ". College, it was decided to provide all the materials on the activities Grzhebina abroad in the Cheka, a copy - in the RCP (b), Commissariat and personally VI. Lenin

. Meanwhile, . at the same time, . when the board of the State Publishing House analyzed quite convincing documents of bad faith Grzhebina, . and the latter continued to collect multimillion-dollar advances to companies under the Soviet ghost jobs, . Gorky did not cease to convince Lenin in, . that "no advances Grzhebin not require", . and all proceedings are exceptional baiting "good man",

In the months that followed the conflict over the publishing house Grzhebina continued to grow. Soviet organs of state power, one way or another involved in publishing activities or its financing, taking often the opposite decision on the continuation of cooperation with Grzhebinym. Thus, the editorial board in February, the State Publishing House, 1921. decided "to proceed to the immediate elimination of through Rabkrin relations with Z.I. Grzhebinym ". The very next day, the panel chaired Narcompros Lunacharskogo felt the rationality of the transfer of the publisher Grzhebina orders for printing of educational materials abroad. Simultaneously, in Moscow continued to receive letters from Germany, containing more and more new facts about the activities Grzhebina.

In February, 1921. Representative of the Scientific and Technical Department in Berlin NM. Fedorovskij Lunacharskogo warned that Grzhebina were listed in the record books, existed only as a proof of copies made on expensive paper and on the conservative estimate in order "to more accurately obtain government contracts". After a few days in Moscow came another letter from Germany from the SM. Sachs-Gladnev, in which he wrote: ": Until then, I agree with the well-wishers and patrons Grzhebina that he is useful, because it is extremely energetic, but now finally convinced to the contrary - all of his energy is spent on fraud". Almost simultaneously Lunacharsky received a second letter from Fedorovsky, which drew the attention of the People's Commissar for "advertising of the Commissioner of Education of a Grzhebina. Using money from you and sent you the cooperation of the same professors, this gentleman throughout Europe advertised himself: "Publishing Grzhebina. Stockholm - Berlin - Petersburg. This means all books and even the Globes, which this employer sends to you. The result was a completely wild thing. Germanic book and publishing world does not know the RSFSR Commissariat of Education does not know, but well now knows Grzhebina living in speculative hotel Adlan, where the world stops "Zhiber". Meanwhile, direct publishing RSFSR here will save a lot of money and raise our value in the Germany. I managed to organize a publishing house, and I ask you to eliminate Grzhebina and access to the Soviet establishment, the Bureau of foreign science and technology "".

Relationships with publishers Grzhebina requested clarification and the representative of Foreign Trade in Berlin, VP. Kopp, referring to the name of Gorky, in a telegram dated March 14, 1921: "Please immediately inform the final decision of appropriate agencies on the role of Grzhebina in publishing and organizing Book Exhibition. Information available to Fedorovsky - a break with Grzhebinym - are in complete contradiction to the reports that I have been made Gorky. From Germany firms received requests ".

Finally, March 2, 1921. the sitting of the State Publishing House for the Elimination of cases with Grzhebinym. The latter admitted all the charges against him. Following the meeting, state publishing committee, commission of the CC RCP (b) decided to demand a return of 500 thousand Grzhebina. Reichsmarks has received from the various Soviet institutions. This amount was only a small part of the proceeds Grzhebinym at different times. Thus, the deputy head of the State Publishing House certificate presented to them in the Commissariat, said: "I hereby Gosizdat reports that Z.I. Grzhebinym received approximately 24 million. Rub. (of which 1 million. Duma) to perform the work the State Publishing House and other agencies.

At the moment, because of illness accountant and leave some of the staff, the State Publishing House, the first sum can not be determined exactly, but in any case, it ensures that the difference does not exceed a few hundred rubles. Neither the State Publishing House, nor any other institution has received from Grzhebina a single book at the expense of the money.

In addition to the State Publishing House, Commissariat issued Grzhebinu 500 thousand. stamps for the printing of books in Germany ".

To appease some of Germanic, March 24, 1921. Berlin telegram was sent Lunacharskogo read: "Resolution of the State Publishing House canceled a contract with Grzhebinym. Commission of the Central Committee is a contract invalid, the task detail to consider the special commission. This latter unanimously recognized the treaty violated the fault Grzhebina. Terms Grzhebina for publishing the work is not acceptable. Information Fedorovsky case Grzhebina correct. All publishing abroad representative requested the State Publishing House, what in Germany is Fedorovskij ".

However Grzhebinu managed this time to achieve a compromise agreement. State Publishing House Editorial Board decided to pay its overseas publishing printed books to order the various agencies. This decision coincided with Lenin's opinion, expressed in his letter YU.H. Lutovinovo May 30, 1921: "On Grzhebine were differences in our Central. Some said: not to remove, because the fob can be a publisher. Others said: as a publisher will issue a cheaper. It is better to dupe 10 000, but will issue a cheaper and better. Chose a commission equal number of both colors. I entered it because of my "addiction" (according to some people) to Gorky, counsel Grzhebina. The Commission agreed unanimously. I do not remember exactly how decided: It seems - to buy from Grzhebina, if it is cheaper. Therefore, your conclusion: "not guided by public reasons", and reassurance Gorky - a downright lie ".

Meanwhile Grzhebin continued persistently to convince the State Publishing House of the benefits of its proposals. In his analysis of foreign trade legislation germanskogo, . he had prepared for the State Publishing House in 1921, . He described the foreign trade policy in Germany: "In fighting for its currency, . stands today is very low, . Germany established on paper and books, . exported abroad, . particularly high prices, . where these prices are set for each country specific - depending on the coefficient of exchange rate differences,
. (Domestic prices were raised in 3 - 4 times).

But it takes exceptional advantage of Russia in the event that it removes from Germany, the paper is not in the form of paper, but in the form of finished printed works. In this case, paper costs and costs of the domestic market at a time when the price of paper for Russia still increased by almost 100% of the titles are exported to Russia, the price increased by just 1% on the same paper, these books are the prices of domestic Market.

Publishing activities Grzhebina often under attack and in the emigre press. Thus, the "Latest News" published a letter DS. Merezhkovsky, which in relation to the publisher was used the expression "literary parasite". Grzhebinu charged with what he buys Russian writers in Russia, taking advantage of their need, they created works almost for nothing. Setting out the accusation quite eloquently: "The price does not give very much. Remizov for his work introduced a bag of frozen potatoes. Gippius was also in wholesale, 20 thousand. rubles. Merezhkovsky for Selected Works - a sum which in translation was 50 francs. Purchases are made with knowledge of the bourgeois prejudices. Contracts tries to write on stamped paper and purchases, so to speak, for future use: or permanently, or, as was the case with Kuprin, not less, as the 100 thousand. copies.

3.N. Gippius also accused Grzhebina that he bought from troubled Russian writers of the right to be issued-tion of their works at extremely low prices. Gippius, in part, published in 1921. Diary of St. Petersburg, also harshly dealt with this theme, illuminating the hostile attitude Grzhebina to Gorky: "From the first moment of the revolution he was like a tick, stared at the Gorky. Do not depart from it even a step, someone saw him at the back the car led. Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna, when it, in the days of March, traveled Gorky <:> Now he's right hand - the main factor Gorky. I walked to him at any time, to get him on the occasion of various "art" - in fact bitter eagerly buying all sorts of vases and enamel have despised "bourgeois" starving. <:> K writers Grzhebin is now in patronage. I do not th is like his (semi-legal, under the wing of Gorky) Publishing. He buys all the writers with names - buying "future use" - now can not publish. In the case of the coup - all of Russian literature in his hands, under the treaties, many of the summer - and as Best Buy! Literally, just a few pieces of bread!

No publisher with me and with me so shamelessly did not bargain, as Grzhebin. <:> I am ashamed to say for how much he bought me and Merezhkovsky. Shame, but not us, of course. People with a noose around his neck is such things are not ashamed ".

Such accusations have caused a very strong reaction. "Will Russia October 17, 1920. published an article by the critic п-.пг. Damansky, who gave a diametrically opposite assessment of the W. Grzhebina: "life-saving role in the existence of Russian writers in the last two terrible years played two publishers:" World Literature and publishing Grzhebina: ". And further: "The program included publishing Grzhebina publication of all modern writers, the series of biographies and popular science books. Z. Grzhebin acquired the right edition Merezhkovsky Kuprin, M. Kuzmin, A. Amfiteatrov, E. Zamyatin, In. Rozanov, and many others: ".

Not ignored the accusations and he Grzhebin. In a reply letter Merezhkovsky, . sent them to the "Latest News", . Grzhebin expounded very important for understanding the processes, . occurring in the publishing of the period, . history of their relationships with authors, . which Merezhkovsky referred to as "misguided" Grzhebinym,
. Issues raised by the publisher in a letter concerning the issue of copyright of Russian authors and publishers of literary works in postwar Europe in general and in Soviet Russia - in particular. Grzhebin wrote: ": criminality should be seen in another way. As soon as I sell their works and on this time Merezhkovsky again selling the same work to other publishers. He tried to sell and the State Publishing House, which sent me his very spicy letter. Gippius sold me his poems in 1918, money received, and the material is not deposited. Kuprin sold me the works, previously sold to another publisher. As Remizov, I hope that he, when he learns of the premises of your article, I will be able to better refute the slander: ".

Judging by the response to the letter Merezhkovsky, published in "Russian book" in June 1921, the charges Grzhebinym were not unfounded. Merezhkovsky actually confirmed non-compliance with a contract with a publisher and the resale of their works. "Leaving aside the question, . the extent applicable legal concepts of purchase and sale transactions to, . which the Soviet government and various speculators extorted Russian writers, . were in inhumane conditions, . the right to publish their works (with perfect, . moreover, . ambiguity, . all or nationalized all publishing rights in the Council of Deputies), . - Wrote Merezhkovsky, . - I say: the prosecution of Mr.,
. Grzhebina - lies and slander, . for which I drew him not only to the court of public opinion, . but also to justice, . soon as possible will provide documents and witnesses, . are now in Russia and I, . for reasons too obvious, . I can not recall ",

. The experience of studying legal documents Russia's emigration suggests, . what, . when one of the opponents referred to certain documents and witnesses, . he could not name for reasons of "too obvious", . meant, . that its position in the dispute are very vulnerable and real evidence of his innocence, he did not have,

In response to numerous attacks Grzhebin so defined his position in life: "O my publishing a lot of nonsense written. But to judge by my business: I am ready to print from Lenin to Shulgin and more to the right, if skillfully and accurately (or rather, sincerely): I am completely independent and typing something that I find it necessary. I can not break away from Russia, I want my books end up in Russia:.

October 3, 1921, Mr.. Politburo authorized Grzhebinu with his family to go abroad. His departure was the emigration. Settling in Berlin, he continued publishing.

However, the ban on the importation of Soviet Russia, books published abroad, and the termination of the Berlin treaty trade mission led to the ruin Grzhebina.

January 11, 1922, Mr.. Board of the State Publishing House passed a resolution in which "World Literature" became independent from the state to private publishing house, working on general civil grounds ". In these circumstances, further cooperation with the publishing Grzhebina for the Soviet leadership was completely unnecessary, and severed relations with him. Lasted another few years, publishing "World Literature" ceased its activities in 1924. with the majority of Russian publishing houses in Germany.

It is difficult to overestimate the importance that the work had Gorkovskaya publishers for the development of Russian publishing business in Germany. Significant funds, . pressured Gorky annually by the Soviet government for the introduction of printing in Germany, . and, . main, . the hype, . who managed to create around Grzhebinu Soviet orders in Germany, . inevitably entails both increased supply of Russian books, . and growing number of publishers, . oriented typography for the RSFSR,
. That success publishing Grzhebina on the Soviet book market forced many of the Russian publishing company in Germany to seek contacts with representatives of the State Publishing House and other government agencies in the hope, at least in part, this success to share.

I.V. Hesse in his memoirs, also turned his attention to publishing Grzhebina: "The most important: it was publishing Grzhebina, friend and protege of Gorky, in which he skillfully put his affairs. Grzhebin concluded a treaty with the Soviet authorities, are required to acquire a few thousand copies of each book issued to them, and on this broad foundation has developed a frenzied activity. The well-being, however, did not last long - a misunderstanding arose between the partners (Grzhebin complained about the plot against him), the contract was breached and Grzhebin was in a worse situation than the woman in "Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish". Colossal warehouse, . including the very valuable and well-published his books, . calculated on a solid sales in Russia, . turned into pulp, . Publishing, . flashed a brilliant comet, . noisily disappeared, . and himself Grzhebin died prematurely in Paris ",

. Ironically, . which shows in the above passage memories of Hesse, . likely, . reflected the prevailing among the Russian publishers in Germany, scarcely concealed envy for commercial success Grzhebina, . often splashed on the pages of the periodical press,
. Hesse himself frankly admitted that the publisher Grzhebina "capped" him, Hesse, Publishing House "Word".

Meanwhile, the main stages of business Grzhebina Hessen been covered quite true. After the Soviet leadership ceased cooperation with the publishing Grzhebina, thereby placing him in a critical position, turnover fell sharply, dramatically increased the number of debts. The overall decline in the incipient Russian book-publishing case in Germany after deflation affected the solvency of Russian firms. The introduction of the Government of Germany's so-called "golden brand" does not increase the confidence of entrepreneurs to the German currency. Taught by bitter experience impairment of their capital, Russian publishers continue to enter into contracts for the supply of its products in the bookselling firm, using the dollar equivalent of. Such a scheme of financial accounts was associated with a number of potential hazards. First, Germanic government, concerned about the maintenance of the national currency, the law restricted the circulation of foreign currencies on the domestic market, making an exception only for foreign trade contracts. In other words, pay for some goods in the territory of Germany, for example, in U.S. dollars, was possible only in case the goods subject to resale abroad. Otherwise, participants in the transaction is subject to sanctions. So entrepreneurs, . and Russian publishers, including, . resorted to the gentleman's agreement, . specifying in contracts the cost of goods sold in the Germanic brands, . and verbally agreeing on, . that payment will be made in foreign currency,
. By this scheme, and resorted Grzhebin, carrying out deliveries of printed books in wholesale bookselling firm.

But here the publishers awaited another danger - the refusal of the partner commitments. That is what happened with the publisher Grzhebina in 1923, further aggravating the financial situation of the firm after the failure of Soviet Russia

. History of relations between publishers and Grzhebina Joint Stock Company Russia booksellers Henry Sachs - the firm, . also created Russia's emigre, . is a typical illustration of regress, . engulfed the Russian book market in Germany,
. In the autumn of 1923. ratio of two Russian businessmen evolved quite nicely. Henry Sachs concluded another contract with the publisher Grzhebina to supply a large consignment of books for a total amount exceeding 2 thousand. U.S. $. What matters is the terms on which happened contract. Has been based upon catalog publishing Grzhebina, released them in 1923. and containing about 140 titles published in the light of books. Since in the catalog nominal prices Henry Sachs received a discount 45% in the case, if the total amount of its purchases exceeded the milestone of 5 thousand. dollars, the bookseller could count on an additional discount of 5%. This relationship between wholesale and retail prices gives some idea of the profitability of Russian publishing business in the era of its heyday. Retail price catalog could be subjected to halve, but even in this case the publisher was counting on profits

. In drawing up the contract, . "Russian book trade" in the face of its owner Sachs asked the publisher Grzhebina requested not to include the words "as books are sold for export, . Sachs is the firm undertakes to pay the currency ", . because such a formulation could lead to sanctions Germanic authorities for violation of currency legislation of the country,
. But in the words of Sachs, assured by his word "that, in case of any misunderstanding, he did not declare the contract null and void in court on the basis of the fact of the inconsistency of the Government orders germanskogo. We ask the assignment was made, and all prices in the signed contract have been identified in DM.

Export transactions Russian publishing and bookselling company is in the field of view of not only supervising government bodies, but also the emigration of professional organizations, to strive for their power to protect the interests of its members. Thus, in January 1923. in the journal "New Russian book was published a statement of the Union of Russian publishers and booksellers in Germany on how to pay bills for books, released abroad. With this statement, the Union of Russian publishers tried to impose some kind of unwritten rules of conduct for Russian entrepreneurs germanskom book market that is experiencing the damaging effects of inflation. Among other things, the statement said: "1. In those cases (theoretically, . sure, . admissible, . but, . know exactly how the board, . last eighteen months - two years is absolutely not occurred), . when the books were released foreign customers only on commission, . the calculation of adjusted accuracy of the content of the treaty concluded by the parties of the commission,
. 2. Where, . when it comes to calculating perpetrated for the books, . allotted to foreign customers as a buyer, . money on firmly established in practice order, . must be paid within the normal settlement of these transactions for the period (not exceeding in the absence of an agreement 30 days after the designated fare),
. This uchinyaemy to the date the payment is to be made in DM in strict accordance with the amount named in the invoice, regardless of the course mark for foreign currency. If, . however, . foreign customers to pay for the Berlin company to send him a book later than 30 days after sending him books, . a Berlin firm shall be entitled to compensation for all damages it, . caused by the delay of payment, . including losses, . produced by the devaluation of stamps,
. The latest loss is clearly the responsibility of careless contractor delaying payment. When perpetrated by a late calculation for sold him books, . foreign counterparty must be guided by the course mark, . standing that day, . when the payment was to be made and, . hence, . Berlin to pay a company in the currency of their country as many dollars, . francs, . JD etc., . as he would have to spend to cover the debt on the invoice when perpetrated by the timely payment ",

Publisher Grzhebina was precisely in the situation referred to in this document. October 15, 1923, Mr.. Germany's government has decreed deflation, the situation in the financial market of Germany has changed. However, inflationary pressures in the economy continued, there was a devaluation is new, so-called "golden", marks, respectively, increased and the gap between the U.S. dollar and the official exchange rate of national currency. When Grzhebin demanding adherence to contract terms, . Zaks, . Recalling, . that "promise to pay in dollars had only moral character", . refused under this pretext, to make payments in foreign currency, . explaining his refusal to, . that the execution of the contract "met roughness",

. Somewhat later, . obviously wanting to at least partly to save face, . Sachs tried to use a different reason - opening offices in Prague with the Prague firm Grzhebina representation publisher Ladyzhnikov, . where, . hoping to save their business, . moved Russian publishing house,
. The fact of sending Grzhebinym to open an office in a large consignment of books allegedly violated the terms of his contract with the Sax. Realizing the futility of further negotiations, Grzhebin appealed to the arbitration court.

Handling Russian businessmen in exile to arbitral tribunals are a common practice. Arbitration courts in several European countries are very often replaced by immigrants "normal" state proceedings. For these reasons and many commercial contracts between Russia's цLmigrцLs included references to mediation arbitration in the event of possible conflict.

The meeting of the arbitral tribunal on the application Grzhebina, in which he requested to meet their demands to the company Sachs, on 16 November 1923. After listening to the opposing sides, . court ruled: "From the pleadings, . case and their own experience, . court knows, . not least, . than 65% bought in Berlin by the Russian publisher of books exported, . the court considers just oblige Henry Sachs to pay 65% of Inherited from contract payments in U.S. Dollars, . the remaining 35% - in the gold stamp ",
. Such a significant percentage specified by the arbitral tribunal as the most typical in export transactions with Russian books, seems at that time greatly exaggerated. By the end of 1923. Russian book publishing in Germany has already reached its zenith, and entered into a stage of decline. "Personal Experience", to which the judge referred to the arbitral tribunal has been accumulated, probably in a period when much of the books in Russian went from Germany to Soviet Russia and Constantinople.

The positive decision of the arbitral tribunal was almost the last successful publishing Grzhebina. Correspondence lawyer Grzhebina B.L. Gershun contains frequent references to the constantly increasing debt publishers, amounting to June 1925. 118 thousand. Reichsmarks. Dropped dramatically and sales. Gershun in his letter is not assigned to the addressee at the beginning of 1926. shared information about the failures of publishing Grzhebina: "To my knowledge, selling books is extremely bad, and the revenue is a paltry sum. Regarding Russia, apparently, no hope ". The last phrase was indicative of persistent associations with Soviet Russia, which caused publishing Grzhebina. Several years of cooperation with the Bolshevik leadership, have become rare over the years for the immigrant entrepreneurship commercial success, continued to give hope to the possibility of restoring the severed ties with the homeland. Since the Russian book publishing in Germany in the mid 20-ies. no longer had the scale that previously, the Soviet market saw a panacea for a final ruin. However, the market for Grzhebina and most other publishers emigrants in this period was already closed, and the process of bankruptcy more accelerated. Already in February 1926. Gershun wrote in another letter: ": Grzhebin not responding to my letters: He, apparently, does not fulfill its promises". And a few days later he wrote in another letter: "Apparently, on my calculations with Grzhebinym have to put a cross". In the last quoted paper referred to an attorney's fee, which is publishing Grzhebina should have to pay Gershoni.

In March 1926, Mr.. question arose about the arrest of property Publishers Grzhebina in Berlin and on the auction sale of books to remain in its warehouses. To implement this operation, the lenders have created a publishing company, all members of which owed units from sales of property in accordance with the size of the claims of each of them. This history of the publishing Grzhebina in Germany can be considered finished.

Sam Z.I. Grzhebin some time trying to organize the printing of books in Prague, together with the publishing Ladyzhnikov, but the idea that success was not.

After moving in 1924. France, Grzhebin collaborated with the Soviet trade mission.

February 4, 1929, Mr.. He died suddenly of a heart attack in the town of Vanves near Paris.

Publication of documents:

Unknown Bitter. Vol.3. Gorky and his era: Materials and Research. M., 1981.
Bitter M. Unpublished correspondence. M., 2000.


Hesse I.V. Years of exile: The life record. Paris, 1979.

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