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Wolfflin Henry

( Artist)

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Biography Wolfflin Henry
Henry WTlfflin (1864-1945). "I am among art historians -" formalist ". This name I accept as an honorary title, . because it is about, . I always saw the first task of the historian of art in the analysis of the plastic form ... "- so Henry WTlfflin in the last years of his life to establish their place in the science of art, . the development of which he has had a decisive influence,
. His name is related to the formation of art history as an independent scientific discipline. Before Wolfflin history of art - this is partly the archeology section, . somewhat peripheral region of Cultural History, . partly scope esseisticheskogo creativity, . after Wolfflin - a respectable and completely autonomous science, . having its own specific method and material for research,
. Designed Wolfflin method of formal stylistic analysis of the artistic monuments for nearly a century is the basis for the preparation of art in different countries. In a sense velflinovsky method is a cornerstone in the building of modern science polysyllabic about art.
Henry WTlfflin lived a long life. Swiss by birth, he was educated at the University of Basel, where his teacher was the eminent historian of Renaissance culture I. Burkhard, which WTlfflin inherited a taste for broad kontseptsionnym constructions, as well as important for all subsequent velflinovskogo creative idea of "classic art" as tops in the development of style. Final formation WTlfflin in Munich, one of the best universities of the time, led by Professor G. Brunn, who sought to inculcate in the young researcher interested in a thorough review of a specific monument. This concern, expressed in the particular substantive approach to the phenomena of art, there is in all the works Wolfflin, even in cases where the artistic process is considered at the level of abstract categories. Excellent education, combined with the talent and uncommon diligence, could not bear fruit. Now it seems almost incredible that the fundamental monograph "The Renaissance and the Baroque", which brought Wolfflin European reputation, was published in 1888, only twenty-four boys.

. By the time the book WTlfflin has taught at the University of Munich
. Since the work of the university was linked whole future life of a scientist. He has held professorships at major universities in Germany and Switzerland. After Munich, he taught at Basel, then in Berlin, again in Munich, from 1924 until the end of life - in Zurich. Lectures Wolfflin were some kind of event they wanted to listen to virtually all art historians, who received his education in Europe. In lectures, the researcher tried in the rather simple and clear format, with concrete examples convey the substance of their ideas, the advantage of a new approach to art. Effect of a university course is well marked in the second major work Wolfflin - the book "Classical Art" (1899), which was finally adopted its credibility as an outstanding historian of art.

. The period from the publication of this book until the most significant in the theoretical sense of "Basic concepts of art history" (1915) was a time of world fame Wolfflin
. His works are translated into major European languages. His ideas not only dominate among art historians, but also in an indirect form of influence on many artists, as you know, at this time is particularly interested in problems of visual language. Concept Wolfflin has a significant impact on the development of literary criticism, and some other humanities disciplines, and set an end in itself the task of studying the art form.

. Popularity Wolfflin, in addition to its scientific novelty and relevance of his ideas, no doubt contributed to the literary talent of the researcher
. WTlfflin wrote lively, figurative language, favorably distinguishes his work from the overloaded special terminology and to limit science-like "ledger" other German scientists. WTlfflin easily drawn to the unexpected, at first glance, even arbitrary, simile and metaphor, the result is surprisingly accurate and tangible idea of transmitting researcher. Suffice it to recall the famous comparison of the early Renaissance with tonkochlennymi girlish figures in colorful robes ". Velflinovsky style of presentation made it deep on the scientific content of the work accessible and interesting to a wide range of readers. Direct consequence of the popularity and wide reach Wolfflin was elected to membership in the Prussian Academy of Sciences. He was the first researcher to receive the title of academician of the work in the field of art history, which certainly raised the prestige of the then young science.

However Wolfflin was destined to survive the apogee of its glory. After the First World War velflinovsky method was subjected to a thorough critique. Researchers are not able to counter this criticism is nothing substantial. Over the last three decades of life WTlfflin published only one major work - "Italy and the German sense of form" (1931), in which he would rather have specified previously expressed position than the original concept put forward. New generation of art historians did not satisfy velflinovsky analysis of art forms, they sought a deeper comprehension of the content of art. Umami mastered the concept of "art history as the history of the spirit" of Max Dvorak and ideas gaining momentum ikonologicheskoy School. Work Wolfflin gradually lost their relevance, turned into a kind of classical art history. It is no accident many times reprinted "Basic concepts of art history, which became a kind of textbook. In this situation WTlfflin refuses polemical attacks against the Cultural and sociological approaches to the study of art, allows for "history of art as the history of the phrase". However, in every way he defends the right of the existence of his own theory, which defines the words "art history as an immanent form."

. To understand the origins of velflinovskoy theory of art should go back to the events of 1887, when a young researcher during a trip to Rome met and became close friends with a group of German intellectuals, which included the philosopher to
. Fiedler, painter X. Von Mare, a sculptor. Hildebrand. These people were united idea of rebirth "grand style" on the basis of newly discovered "eternal laws of art". The role of the ideologue served Fiedler, who asserted that the task of art - not the reproduction of the world and not an idealization of him, and the creation of some "new reality" through the achievement of perfect harmony of form. Contact Fiedler's ideas for a specific artistic practices demonstrated Hildebrand in the widely known book, "The problem of form in art". The main thesis Hildebrand came down to the fact that all lies beyond the "optical property", actually visible, the formal side of the work, has no direct relationship to the essence of artistic creativity.

. Ideas "Roman circle" inspired Wolfflin, then he compared them with crisp, fresh rain on the drought exhausted soil "
. As a prospect researcher most of all attracted to making the history of art in an objective science, in fact form in his opinion, could be "mathematically" measured. Brought up on the positivist ideals of the XIX century, WTlfflin sought to get away from subjective methods for precision experiment, through which the researcher wanted to find the immutable laws governing the development of art. A new approach to art, applied to the knowledge of historical phenomena, Wolfflin allowed to develop sufficiently coherent concept, does not change, but developing, I refined throughout the life scientist. His major works like mark milestones on this road. Underlying velflinovskoy theory is the idea of the existence of various "methods of vision characteristic of various historical eras. The difference between the methods associated with the evolution of the psychic nature of man, generative change in visual perception of the objective world and, as a consequence, the forms of its reproduction in art. The researcher stressed that the change of style does not depend on the conscious will of artists. Thus, the development of art forms in Wolfflin is internally determined, the immanent process, subjugates all other aspects of creative activity. Therefore, any knowledge about the artists playing for understanding the art of secondary importance. Hence the famous velflinovsky point: "history painters", and "art history without names.

. In the first book Wolfflin Renaissance and Baroque considered not simply as the successive styles, but as two radically different ways of creative thinking, expressing a fundamentally different world view
. In the changing Renaissance Baroque scholar was inclined to see one of the most important principles in the development of forms, observed not only in Italian Art. It is noteworthy that WTlfflin going to give the book a parallel review "of the ancient Baroque. The study of the essence and origin of the baroque style of the scientist trying to develop a system of concepts to describe the various "methods of vision". This work was continued in the book "Classical Art", . where WTlfflin introduced the art of the High Renaissance as a result of "purely optical nature", . directed "to the joint contemplation of the deal and fused into the necessary parts of a whole relationship",
. Research findings on the "classical art" not as a concrete, historical, and timeless categories, received further theoretical development in the "Basic concepts of art history". This method is not consistently Wolfflin historical, . it creates a picture of the art of modern times, . using a system of formal categories, . consisting of five pairs of contrasting concepts (linear and painterly, . flatness and depth, . closed and open forms, . plurality and unity, . absolute and relative clarity),
. This system was a kind of completion of the theoretical constructs Wolfflin. The last book, . on "German sense of form", . researcher does not introduce anything fundamentally new, . it only demonstrates the additional possibilities "formal" approach to art, . trying to connect "method of vision" with the peculiarities of the national attitude.,

. WTlfflin understand the limitations of his theory
. He said that it is applicable only for the art of those periods in which there were common "methods of vision". Art of XIX-XX centuries, with its chaos of different directions WTlfflin refused to investigate, believing that time the deepest decline in art. According to him, "a beautiful goal is to preserve the history of art alive even if the concept of a uniform vision, overcoming incredible confusion and setting eyes on a firm and clear attitude to appear.

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