Salomon Koninck( Artist)
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Biography Salomon Koninck
Salomon Koninck (1609-1656). When it comes to Dutch painting of the XVII century, it is impossible to do without mentioning the name of Rembrandt. His art is in its significance went far beyond his native Holland, and has become a major factor in European artistic process. Rembrandt was the ancestor of the picturesque style, which can not be attributed either to the baroque to classicism nor. His artistic language is based on a realistic perception of the world, full of depth psychology, the internal expression. Rembrandt ahead of his time, it is, in turn, has failed to appreciate the artist. Rembrandt style was revived to life only in the XIX century in the works of numerous artists-realists, many of whom literally worshiped by his great predecessor. XX century, too, knows the followers of Rembrandt's painting style. However, only a few of his contemporaries understood and appreciated artist.
From lifetime admirers of Rembrandt should be called first and foremost representatives of his school. The concept of 'school' in the XVII century it was already well-established. Every more or less well-known painter had his studio, in which trained and worked his students and apprentices. Workshops were different types. We Rubens, for example, was organized in the literal sense of 'production' paintings. His students, many of which were also well-known masters of the brush, he painted, in which the teacher only 'pass' brush. After this picture was sold as products Rubens. But bydi workshops and other types. In their first priority was not the production of paintings and execution of numerous orders, and training of students. So it was a Rembrandt. His main objective he considered education of the young artist's craft and professional techniques of the maximum development of their individual abilities. Students, they are also followers of the artist, and had been under his influence the whole direction of the painters were in the Dutch painting of the second half of XVII century. Their general idea was to develop the artistic principles of Rembrandt, an imitation of his painting style. All these artists have been called 'School of Rembrandt'. These include Gerard Dou, Willem de Pootera, Jacob Baker, Govert Flink, Ferdinand Bol, Salomon Koninck.
The flowering of the workshop of Rembrandt and the largest number of pupils is 30-s-50-s of the XVII century. From documentary evidence it is known that for a fee of 100 florins students not only lived, but lived on in the studio. It was located right in the house of the artist, in a small room, divided into small rooms. This enabled students to work quietly on those tasks, which gave them a teacher. In addition to full-scale sketches, they copied the work of Rembrandt himself, while considering not only the design and composition, but also the problem of light and shade. Naturally, the Salomon Koninck, being, however, briefly, in the workshop of Rembrandt, were filed to the whole of the education system.
Amsterdam painter with. Koninck experienced strong influence of Rembrandt. Just as a teacher, he painted religious subjects, various genre scenes. Characteristically, Koninck learns Rembrandt style 30-ies. For the great masters of this was the period of greatest fame and popularity, financial success, carefree creative life. At that time there have been major themes of his work, determined desire for philosophical reflection on the tragic aspects of life, which compelled him to seek not to genre, and to the images of universal significance.
. But when Rembrandt went to his artistic development is on, then Koninck rest on its laurels
. Throughout his not very long life he continued in the same manner of paint on the biblical, historical or mythological subjects. At Leningrad's Hermitage is one of the most characteristic paintings of this kind. This 'Parable of the Laborers in the Vineyard'. Like other works of the school of Rembrandt, the picture is a very skillful and professional imitation of the young Rembrandt. At first glance, it might even seem like the product of the master. The New Testament story treated as a domestic scene in the contemporary Dutch painter: the calculation of the master with their employees. His only reception is Rembrandt's famous chiaroscuro. That it creates a dramatic mood, an atmosphere of spirituality and emotional richness. It is thanks to her genre scene has such inner strength and significance.
. Black and white techniques Koninck (or rather, Rembrandt) built on the contrast between light and shadow, the darkening of some parts of the painting and other vysvetlenii
. Special effect they are buying, when the artist depicts the dim interior, lit by a bright light source side. These techniques come from Italy, from Caravaggio. In the XVII century, they captured many European artists. But most of these artists they look formal experiments in the field of light and shadow. And only Rembrandt and his followers were able to breathe life in them, give them the emotional and sensual mood. All this can be seen in other subject compositions of the artist, like, 'Croesus, Solon showing their treasures' or 'The Calling of St. Matthew' (both pictures in the gallery of Berlin).
In addition to the curved tracks Salomon Koninck engaged portrait. He was a follower of the portrait genre, which became a specific feature of the Dutch school of painting and, in particular, the school of Rembrandt. This is the so-called 'genre portrait'. This was not the image of a particular person (although the portrait often painted from life), and a certain collective image, a typical representative of a certain profession. Most artists attracted by the image of the scientist an old man working in his office (the creator of this image was Rembrandt). Typically the portraits accompanied by various household details, describing the situation, clothing,. The State Hermitage possesses two such canvas ( 'The old scientist', 'The scientist at the table'). A good example 'genre portrait' may be 'astronomer' Koninck of the Dresden Gallery. Before us dressed in a velvet hat and jacket, an old man. About his professional affiliation say only certain attributes, spyglass in hand and a globe, standing in the background. Perhaps, as a model of the artist used the artist's model of the Rembrandt workshop, or even someone from close. So all this prop is somewhat artificial. In fact, it is simply a portrait of an old man, made wise by experience, and burdened life. But such was the specificity of the genre, selected by the artist.
Salomon Koninck left a great artistic heritage. His paintings are almost all the major galleries and museums around the world: he was a very productive. Remarkable and the fact that in every picture he remained masterovitym painter, never doing anything to the detriment of technical excellence. S. Koninck was a faithful guardian of the traditions of his great contemporaries and teachers, and what is its main service to European art.