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Biography COOPER Samuel
Samuel Cooper (1609-1672). He was called 'Van Dyck in miniature', 'portrait of the King' and more-'pervym, who gave the art of miniature portrait of power and freedom of oil painting '.
Today, Cooper's reputation is as high as in life. Unlike many artists, he did not have years to wait for recognition. In his 30 years he was considered one of the best miniature Europe.

On Cooper's life very little is known. Government securities, the rare mention of his contemporaries, and several letters to friends Cooper-so that is what his biographers use. Meanwhile, numerous contacts and acquaintances in the highest circles of society, where life flowed Cooper, could leave a more tangible evidence of his life. He traveled extensively in Europe, was familiar with the greatest minds of France, Holland, England. Obviously, he was a man shirokoobrazovannym. Contemporaries mention of his remarkable abilities of a musician, and the knowledge of many foreign languages. The short description of Cooper's left to us by Cosimo III de 'Medici. He has heard much about this artist before his arrival in England in 1669

year, he knew that very few people return from London, not trying to get his portrait of Cooper, which is highly revered in the kingdom and outside. Cosimo III Cooper describes as 'the little man, alive and witty, gracious host of his comfortably furnished home'.

Samuel Cooper and his older brother Alexander was brought up by their uncle, John Hoskins, miniaturist. He was also the first teacher Cooper. Rare ability to lead his nephew to the fact that portraits of customers began to write exclusively Cooper, Hoskins is working only on the background. Very soon the nephew than his uncle, and his popularity began to grow at an incredible speed. Can assume that Cooper has stopped working with Hoskins to work with since he moved into his own house about 1642. Henceforth, all the work of the artist, dated and signed.

Cooper was married to Christine Turner, one of seventeen children Yorkshire landowner. Her sister Edith was the mother of the famous poet Alexander Popa. Cooper, apparently, were childless. In any case, making a will, Cooper called his wife his sole heir. She was younger than his 14 years and much has survived her husband. The only known portrait of her great-unfinished miniatures from the collection of the Duke of Portland.

In early works Cooper noticeable effect Hoskins. Later, like many artists of his time, Cooper started painting by Van Dyck and repeatedly copied it work. He completely mastered the baroque pattern and thin and volume, characteristic of oil painting on canvas, and was able to use them in their watercolor miniatures. This technique was something completely new, unknown to his predecessors, Hiyardu, Oliver Hoskins, whose work came from the tradition of portrait miniatures. Well-known miniature portrait of this period, Margaret Lemon in the men's suit, shows a mature mastery of the artist.

Unlike many fashionable portrait painters of his time, Cooper was able to transmit individual features of their models. His portraits are distinguished subtle color harmony, a person carefully modeled, the characters vivid and expressive. Most of the miniatures executed in a landscape, colors muted background, while the faces and costumes stand out with a clear pure color. Cooper did not like writing accessories, preferring to focus on the nature of the model. However, if he had the will of the customer to write lush costumes, complicated hairdos, he dealt with this with great brilliance. It is equally well served male and female portraits and wrote their models with sympathy and understanding. Such is the portrait of the Archbishop of Canterbury-Gilbert Sheldon (1667) or a beautiful miniature of James, Duke of York (1661), housed at the Victoria and Albert Museum; remarkable series of miniatures from the collection of the Duke of Portland. Cost miniatures Kupepa has grown steadily. If the first 50 years of Cooper's portraits were worth 12 pounds, then twenty years later, Cosimo III de 'Medici had already paid him 150 pounds, that is, Cooper received for his work stolyso same as leading' big 'artists of his time. Unanimous consent stingy British aristocracy generously remunerate the artist-the most tangible evidence of his glory.

Interestingly, Cooper's reputation as an artist has put him above all the political upheaval and intrigue. And the fact that during the English Republic, he worked for Oliver Cromwell and his entourage, were no obstacle for the royal court and the patronage which he received immediately after the Restoration.

. In 50-ies Cooper creates some wonderful portraits of Oliver Cromwell, including his most famous unfinished miniature early fifties, tired, strong-willed person Cromwell transferred from uncommon in the XVII century the power of realism
. Cooper wrote Borchir miniature portraits of Elizabeth, Cromwell's wife, his daughters, sons, comrades. He was so involved in this work that the rest of the customers is almost impossible to achieve the honor to pose for him.

1660 in England-Year Restoration. King Charles II, son of the executed Charles 1, returns to London. His first action-penalty murder his father, hanging excavated from the grave the body of Cromwell and ... Visit the studio Cooper.

Charles II was a great lover of painting. As expected, Cooper wrote an infinite number of his portraits. On the famous miniature of 1665, King is depicted in ceremonial dress with the ribbon and the Order of the Garter. Their best miniature Cooper creates in the last twelve years of life. Charles II makes it a royal portrait and assigns the annual salary. Cooper wrote miniature king, his many lovers, their offspring, a courtier to know. The number of orders exceeds its ability to cope with them and to satisfy all comers.

Until recently, only two were known figure Cooper: sketch of Charles II (Windsor) and a drawing of Thomas Alcock (Eshmolen Museum 0ksford). Several years ago it was discovered four great picture for understanding the contemporary enthusiasm Cooper, mention it 'a rare pencil', which perhaps has no equal in Europe.

. Until recent days, Cooper continued to work with inexhaustible energy and unflagging skill-example is the magnificent miniature Lord Shlifor, yes, bears the date 1672 Year-Year of the artist's death.

. The name Cooper is highly valued in England and abroad
. The British considered him the greatest miniaturist of the XVII century.

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