Leicester Judith( Artist)
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Biography Leicester Judith
Judith Leicester (1609-1660). Frans Hals was a great reformer of portraiture in the Netherlands. He not only developed and brought to perfection the genre of group portrait, but also expanded, enriched and shaped the plot structure of a portrait at all. His models, representing different segments of Dutch society, natural and free. They are extremely vital, and at the same time, they have a lot of generalization, genericity. Maybe that's why Hals most special kind of can-portrait genre, in which the artist as it gives a typological cross-section of society. Suffice it to recall the most famous works of the artist ( 'mulatto', 'Gypsy', 'Malle Babb') to understand the mastery with which Hals reveals in the form or nature of a particular person-specific features of a social stratum. And if later the artist's outlook has changed and he began to deal with different artistic tasks, born of the portrait-genre found in the Dutch art of many followers.
. They were mostly those who have grouped around Hals, his disciples or imitators
. They laid the foundations of genre painting in Holland, creatively developed by those issues on which he worked the young Hals. They are embodied in the reality of people's democratic tendencies of his early works.
. Among the large constellation of these painters was Judith, and Leicester, one of the few women artists in Holland XVII century.
. In 1629 Leicester was to attend a workshop Hals in Haarlem, and in 1633 the artist married I
. M. Molenar, genre painter, also a student Hals. All this contributed to the fact that Judith Leicester ardent follower of Frans Hals became. But it's career there are facts that have left a definite imprint on the formation of its flavors.
. Even before I get into the studio Hals, Leicester was the first professional training in the workshop of Utrecht karavadzhista (his name is unknown, but likely, it was Henrik Terbryuggen)
. Actually, Utrecht karavadzhisty represent a whole group of painters who, having studied classical art in Italy, became a devotee of the Italian karavadzhizma. They opposed the lofty and far from the principles of academic life, and advocated an appeal to the everyday reality, to the prosaic life of ordinary people. One characteristic of Utrecht karavadzhizma, and karavadzhizma in general, has been keen interest in the issue of light and its transmission in the picture. Love of black and white effects attached canvases karavadzhistov special vitality, full of reverent atmosphere of the real environment. Karavadzhisty knowingly violated established academicism boundary between the viewer and the art. Very often the models apply directly to the person who sees the picture of him smiling, gesticulating. Formed in direct contact with the audience.
All this was learned from Judith Leicester karavadzhistov. Especially true for her artistic temperament was the love of light and shadow effects. But stories karavadzhistov, sometimes serious and frivolous, in her work acquired a new femininity and softness, and contrasts of light and shade, smoothness and refinement.
. Leicester's early works, executed in Utrecht, fully comply with the principles of the picturesque karavadzhistov
. Known her polufigurnye image Heraclitus and Democritus (meeting Dyugteren in Arnhem), written entirely in the spirit of X. Terbryuggena. But this, in fact, passion karavadzhizmom ends, although in this form or another, an artist all his life gave him a tribute. Since moving to Harlem is changing not only the painting style Leicester, but the whole of her life as an artist.
. At the turn of the 20's - 30-ies she wrote several works that show a deep penetration in the picturesque style of Frans Hals,'s passion for her
. Leicester creates the same portraits, genre, as its great teacher. Such, for example, her 'Happy drunks' from the collections of the Berlin art gallery, which shows the typical middle-class bourgeois harlemskie when entertaining. These paintings, which have not the slightest element of didacticism, but rather a sincere statement of fact, were designed to hang, of course, in the hall for guests or dining room, as if inviting the audience to follow the example of their heroes.
. Judith Leicester so wonderfully learned scenic features halsovskogo letters with his broad bold strokes, that to this day some of the artist's works are painted by the great master
. Yet, in general, Leicester phenomenon is quite different in scope than Hals. She is a talented imitator only skillfully develops the ideas of others. Dutch art of the time was rich in such masters. That they were called 'small Dutch'.
In some of his works Leicester shows a certain independence from the influence of halsovskogo. Its' Lyutnistka' example of how an artist creates his own image. And only a sharp cut-off Modeling indicates karavadzhistskih trends in its work.
Soon after marriage Leicester moved to Amsterdam. Here comes another turning point in her work. The artist leaves halsovskuyu style. The few works of this time talking about the influence of Vermeer, although it still refers to the type of portrait, genre. Black and white effects in its picturesque palette smoothed gradually disappear, becoming a subtle play of light and different colors. However, the period of fascination vermeerovskoy light element is short. We almost do not know the late works Judith Leicester. It is possible that in the last years of her life she had left at all, for whatever reasons, painting. Therefore, for the history of art, she remains first and foremost true follower of Frans Hals.