Jan PORSELLIS( Artist)
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Biography Jan PORSELLIS
Jan Porsellis (Porcellis) (ca. 1584-1632). Famous French critic and painter E. Fromentin, who knew perfectly XVII century Dutch art, well-defined the essence of landscape painting. He wrote: "Anyone who speaks about some one corner of the north with water, forests, marine horizons, thus speaks of the universe in miniature. The smallest country, studied in good faith, according to the tastes and instincts of the observer, becomes an inexhaustible treasury, abundant, like life itself, is equally rich in sensations, as they richly human heart ". These words can be fully attributed to the Dutch landscape 20-30-ies of the XVII century, one of the heyday of the genre. The development of Dutch painting of this period is marked by the formation of national identity become effective after a long foreign domination. It finds its clearest embodiment of the landscape - the artists are inspired by the nature of their country, opening it more and more new. Another interesting feature of the landscape of this time - his genre branching. Among the landscape is very narrow specialization in the areas of genre. Emerging artists, who write only city or only the forest landscapes, limited to one particular area of painting. The reason for this separation is that the picture at this time is perceived not only as an object of aesthetic pleasure or as a decoration, but also as an object of trade. The concepts of the artist and the craftsman are merged, the craft becomes art, and art - crafts. In an effort to improve their productivity and skills, the artists develop a limited number of topics, not afraid to repeat a single pattern to another.
. These artists, followers not only one genre, but one theme can be attributed Jan Porsellisa
. He was a typical representative of "small Dutch" in the landscape. This artist is on the way of realistic art. In his work it is difficult to detect elements Netherlandish tradition with its schematic vision of the world. More important to him not a generalization, but a specific state of nature, is the emotional environment, which opens up people in a seemingly lifeless matter, "The entry of" human feelings in the way of nature - the distinguishing feature of art Porsellisa. Porsellis was Fleming - he was born in Antwerp. In the same city, he became a master-painter in 1617. But fame came to the artist in the Netherlands, where he regularly visited, and which in 1620 began to live permanently. Contemporaries appreciated his paintings. Preserved a number of certificates in which Porsellis mentioned among the best landscape. To the Dutch period of the artist's life applies also to the competition with two masters of landscape painting by Jan van Goyen and Knibbergenom (it says van Hoogstragen in his "School of Painting"). Porsellis won in this competition - its landscape has been recognized as the best. Porsellis was a very productive artist. One time, he undertook to provide their merchant two pictures per week. However, his paintings of the Flemish period unknown. We can only judge of his mature work.
Throughout his life he wrote Porsellis Seascapes. He brilliantly painted boats, ships, knew their device and snap. Artist interested in most. Different sea conditions - from calm to storm and hurricane. He rarely entered into his paintings some extraneous scenes (as did, for example, his contemporary, Jan van de Capelle). Porsellisa interested only in the sea, all the rest: the people and the shore, the ships and boats - the artist perceived only in connection with. Even such a tragic event as death of the vessel during the storm, into a treatment Porsellisa (for example, in a picture of the Greenwich Maritime Museum) in an exciting episode, only an exciting group of people huddled on the beach.
. Most important means of creating the emotional atmosphere in the picture Porsellisa a range of colors
. He masterfully conveyed the spatial and atmospheric unity shown corner of nature, putting in color and lighting effects all the power of their own experiences. "The main strength of his Marine is the master drawing waves, . What then are unable to reach any of the XVII century Dutch marine painter, . and in the wonderful harmony waves of the sea and quickly running, . sct with apertures light blue sky ", . - Wrote about him a well-known Soviet historian of art B,
. R. Whipper. Perhaps the most emotionally charged painting has Porsellisa "Storm at Sea" * (Alte Pinakothek, Munich). This leads to a comparison with similar work by Jan Brueghel, created more than half a century earlier. As these pictures look like and what the difference between them! After all, they shared an epoch in the development of landscape. Some ships among the surging waves, rushing clouds, and misty sky - that's all that is shown on these canvases. But how many feelings and thoughts behind this apparent simplicity. Bruegel shows the human tragedy, elevating it to a cosmic scale, raising the life and transforming the world in the fight against the elements. Porsellis no less a tragedy. But his tragedy - the world of the senses of the artist, the world of the human soul. This was a more democratic art of the XVII century, its openness to the widest segments of human society.