Hasegawa TOHAKU( Sculptor)
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Biography Hasegawa TOHAKU
Hasegawa Tohaku (1539 - 1610). The flowering of creative activity Hasegawa Tohaku falls on the last third of the XVI and early XVII century - the same short period, which historians call the era of the Japanese Momoyama period (cm. chronology of the history of Japan). Time Momoyama period (1572-1615) marked the transition from the classical to the late Middle Ages. It was a time of relative pacification of the country, occurred as a result of consolidation of power in the hands of the most powerful princes, who were brutally suppressing opponents, led the country from the destructive infighting, tearing her about a hundred years. The period of "strife in the country" has ended, but peace was fragile, samurai clans continued to erect the huge castle, behind the walls of which could sit in the event of renewed hostilities.
. The monumental castle architecture in addition to its purely utilitarian purposes was intended to instill an idea of power and wealth of the owner
. This also began to serve the full range of decorative and applied arts, especially painting. Front and accommodation in castles decorated with murals and panoramic screens covering the walls with solid ribbons. These paintings are often carried out on a gold background, which competed with bright multi-color images. Gold murals (gold powder, applied with a brush, or sometimes leaves of gold foil glued to silk) unwittingly incites us to call the culture of the brilliant Momoyama period. This usually find it - a lush, rich, bright and cheerful. Large decorative compositions, heavy gleaming gold, and wrote Tohaku.
His famous painted Fusuma (departing in the direction of the walls and doors) in the temple Tisyakuin (1592), considered to have begun "painting maples and cherries (fuoga). At the abstract gold background Tohaku depicted powerful thick trunk of an old maple, curved time and storms (not in vain character for "maple" consists of elements of "tree" and "wind"). His dark bark hidebound transmitted broad jagged strokes, contrasts sharply with the calm neutral background. The tree seemed to grow and even protruding from the golden timeless and extradimensional plane. Small bright red and green leaves scattered on the trunk and the few branches, look spectacular decorative spots. With maple leaves - symbols of autumn - echo hagi flowers small bushes growing under the maple tree - too late autumn flowers. Cherry Sakura, on the contrary, - "Spring" plant. Her blossoming, according to Japanese tradition, marks the arrival of warmth and spring. In general, almost all plants - from the powerful to obscure cypress river reeds - appearing in the Japanese medieval poetry and paintings, have a clearly fixed symbolic and even religious and philosophical meaning. Indeed, philosophy as such, the Japanese have not been. Rationally-logical comprehension and explanation of the world they chose associative sensory contact with him, in which the cyclic order of increasing change and fading in the nature of human society tolerated. And Buddhist imagery, like the Japanese people's consciousness was filled with plant symbolism - the Buddha's teachings was called fragrant flower garland, sacred wisdom of the mysterious flower magnified the law and t. d.
Therefore, in the works Tohaku should see several levels: on the external - the concrete landscape motifs, and the domestic - symbolic picture of the eternal truths of nature. So when critics say that the medieval artist thrown off the shackles of convention and began to chant the beauty of mother nature, unequivocally believe this should not be. Despite the fact that in times Tohaku art has become brighter and more decorative than in the previous era, it was from this more realistic and secular. And Worldliness known superficiality interpretations of traditional stories appeared in actively operating in the Momoyama era Kano school, . But to reduce the diversity of Japanese artistic life of this time to the style of Kano, . would be an oversimplification,
. A number of artists, especially Tohaku deliberately kept the continuity of traditions of national art, especially the traditions Sesshå? Tå?yå? (1420 - 1506).
. Tohaku Sesshå? Tå?yå? called himself the heir to the fifth generation, and in one of the names (Settosay) used the first kanji of his name
. In the compiled student Tohaku artistic treatise "Understanding Tohaku about painting" is being built straight line to the great painter of the XV century. This was somewhat exaggerated, since their own school with the transfer of secrets in the family circle at Sesshå? Tå?yå? virtually no. But the influence of his work have experienced everything worked after the wizard, so they considered him their spiritual forerunner. So did Sesson, senior contemporary Tohaku of this outcome and Unkoku Togan, Jr. Tohaku for 7 years (it did not prevent him to declare himself the direct heir Sesshå? Tå?yå? third generation). As a result Tohaku and Togan felt each other mutual dissatisfaction. Indeed, formally speaking, the school was closer to Unkoku Sesshå? Tå?yå? than Tohaku, but close to the imitation follow the teacher could not have a negative effect on the aesthetic qualities of works Togan. As for our hero, . he owned a very extensive range of artistic techniques, . since studied with such diverse artists, . as Soga Sese, . Representative of the little known and extremely conditioned school, . closely associated with the monastery Daytokudzi, . and Kano Seey, . chapter gaining momentum and the official recognition of the school,
. In his mature years Tohaku abruptly parted ways with Kano, and even entered into an alliance against them with the biggest of the action of tea master Sen-no Rikyu, who, like artists Soga, was associated with a monastery Daytokudzi.
. Monasteries as centers of cultural life and rich customers are not lost in the Momoyama era of its significance, though, and lost the monopoly on culture
. Tohaku a long time carried out orders of the capital Hompodzi monastery where he was awarded the high monastic rank Hocke ( "bridge law"). Preserved wrote for Hompodzi large composition "Sakya Muni Buddha in Nirvana", which should Tohaku traditional Buddhist iconography.
. In worshiping Sesshå? Tå?yå? and studying his style, Tohaku inevitably turned to the origins of Japanese monochrome ink painting - works of Chinese artists since the Sung dynasty (X-XIII cc.)
. Inspired by example Mu Qi's paintings are in Japan, known and appreciated, perhaps more than in China itself, Tohaku wrote rollout Monkeys among dry trees ". Monkeys in China and Japan contacted an extensive set of symbolic representations. They could be insane vanity mouthpieces, which embodies, catching the reflection of the moon from the water, and sometimes a monkey, especially black, was considered a mythological animals, companion of the saint, who lives in the woods. Painting Tohaku interesting not primarily speculative sense, and the immediate animation depicted. The information transmitted is not clear-cut soft fur animal carcasses razmyvam expressively contrasted angular withered branches, wrote a sharp, scratchy paper, dry brush.
. Tohaku extraordinarily well knew how to use the multi-tone shades of ink
. From surviving to this day the most expressive works (and is available to us the simplicity of the plot) is a large composition, written in shestistvorchatoy Screen "Pine Grove". On the surface of the screen, occupying the whole wall in the room, shown a few pines in fog and nothing more. Masterly possession of a wide range of black - from the "pianissimo" transparent haze up to "forte" mighty succulent trunks - allowed the artist to create a real monochromatic symphony, . in which the melody is black, . and accompaniment is a white base,
. Saturated with moisture left wrist in rich crowns of the pines as if the presence of a wet fog, from which suddenly loom somewhere wet sloppy lands stems from dry cracked bark.
. But, as we have already mentioned, all growing in nature, it grows more and in the hearts of people relate to the purely human qualities
. Thus, even Confucius said that when it comes to a harsh winter, pine and cypress longest resist frost. He certainly had in mind a noble husband, unshakable storms severe circumstances. This moralistic likening the Japanese added more purely aesthetic aspect of admiration pines in the wind. While "pure" admire the Japanese, of course, did not know - for example, in simple verse like
. Even among the dry stems
. spring breeze blows
. discernible Buddhist motifs eternal renewal of life.
. Therefore, depicting the wind in the pines, Tohaku directly combined the charm and originality of the beautiful landscape with the eternal and immutable laws of the natural cycle: growth - fading - wakening spring breeze.
. Chinese Taoists taught that if he that burneth breathe the aroma of pine resin and pine drink liquor, it is possible to achieve immortality
. In the case of Tohaku can say, if you let yourself beautiful that pine trees have brought him eternal life - in memory of generations, looking at his vague "pine forest".