Alexander Yaroslavich( Prince)
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Biography Alexander Yaroslavich
Alexander Nevsky (knee Ruric 11) from the family of Vladimir-Suzdal Grand. kn. The son of Yaroslav II Vsevolodovicha and Smolensk Prince. Rostislav Mstislavny. Genus. November 1220, Mr.. Kn. Novgorod in 1236 - 1240, 1241 - 1252, 1257 - 1259 Conducted. . kn. Kiev in 1246 - 1263 Conducted. kn. Vladimir in 1252 - 1263 he.
Wife: from 1239 g. daughter of Prince. Polotsk Brjachislav, kn. Alexander.
+ November 14, 1263, Mr..
Adolescence and youth of Alexander Yaroslavich mostly proceeded in Novgorod, where his father reigned. In 1228 in the absence of Yaroslav Vsevolodovich Alexander and his brother Theodore, and two men of the princes were to flee the city, unable to bear risen civil wars. In the 1230-m Knyazhychi with his father returned to the city, and this time Alexander had spent several years.
In 1236 Jaroslav departed to Kiev, planted by Prince Alexander of Novgorod in his place. The young prince will soon have to solve extremely complex problems and fight with many enemies from all sides were pressing for Russia. In 1240 the Swedes, moved by Pope's letters, made a crusade against the land of Novgorod. Voevoda their Birger Jarl went on ships in the Neva River and from there sent a message to Alexander: "If. you can, fight it, but know that I'm already here and captured your land ". By Neve Birger wanted to swim in Lake Ladoga, Ladoga and hence take on the Volkhov have to go to Novgorod. Alexander, however, not losing a day out to meet with the Swedes and Novgorod ladozhanami. Russian secretly approached the mouth of the Izhora, where he stopped to rest enemies, and July 15, suddenly attacked them. Birger was not expecting the enemy and arranged his squad calmly: augers were at the shore, near the tents were divided. Novgorodians suddenly appeared in front of the Swedish camp, rushed at the enemy and began to cut down their axes and swords before they had time to take arms. Sam Birger, Alexander attacked and wounded him with a spear in the face. Swedes fled to the ships and the same night, all floated down the Neva River to the sea.
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Alexander returned to Novgorod, with great glory, but in the same year, fell out with Novgorod and left them in Pereslavl-Zaleski. The city was left without a prince. Meanwhile, the Germans took Izborsk. Pskov went to meet them and were defeated, lost governor Gavrila Gorislavich, and the Germans in the footsteps of traveling came near to Pskov, burnt settlements, surrounding villages and the whole week stood in the city. Pskov were obliged to fulfill all their demands and gave his children hostage: in Pskov started with the Germans possess a firm Ivanovich, who led the enemy, as the chronicler. Proponents of the adverse party fled to Novgorod. Meanwhile the Germans were not content Pskov: together with chudyu attacked them at Votyak. fifths and won her, . imposed a tribute on the inhabitants and, . intending to gain a foothold in the Novgorod parish, . built a fortress in the churchyard Koporje; along arcs timbers all the horses and cattle in the villages it was impossible to plow the land, . Yes, and nothing, on the road about thirty miles from the enemy struck Novgorod merchants,
. Then send Novgorod in the lower reaches land (on Suzdalschinu) to Jaroslav for Prince, . and he gave them another of his son, . Andrew, but hath need was Alexander, . not Andrew; Novgorodians thought and sent back to the nobles of the Bishop of Alexandria; Jaroslav gave it to them again, . what conditions,
. unknown, but undoubtedly Novgorod had to sacrifice some of their liberties.
On arriving in Novgorod in 1241, Alexander immediately went to the Germans to Koporje, took the fortress, the German garrison led to Novgorod, a part he was released and the traitors Vozha River and hang Chud. But it was so soon to release Pskov. Alexander took him only in 1242. When the assault killed 70 knights and warriors set of simple. Six knights were taken prisoner and tortured, po.svidetelstvu German chronicler. Then Alexander entered the land of Lake Peipsi, . in possession of the Order, the army met one of the last Russian troops and smashed it to pieces, and when the fugitives were sent to Alexander the news of this defeat, . then he retreated to the Pskov lake and waited for the enemy on the ice it, . which was still strong on April 5,
. At sunrise started the famous battle, a reputation in our annals by the name of Battle on the Ice. After that, Alexander had to go to Vladimir to say goodbye to his father, . heading for the Horde, in his absence, the Germans sent with a bow in Novgorod, . once said: "What we took the sword, . Vod, . Lugu, . Pskov, . Letgolu, . from the total to; how many people have your captive, . those willing to exchange: We'll get your, . and you let our "; Pskov also released the hostages and made it up,
Third, Alexander scored a victory over Lithuania. Lithuanians invaded Novgorod parish in 1245, took Toropets and beside him were defeated by Yaroslav Vladimirovich Toropetzkaya. The day is come with Alexander of Novgorod, took Toropets, took away all Lithuanians captured and killed their princes more than eight people. Novgorod regiments returned from Toropets, but Alexander was one of the brigade gave chase again for the Lithuanians defeated them again at the lake Zhiztsa not spared a single man, and beat the rest of the princes. After that he went to Vitebsk, where, taking his son, returned home, when he again came across the Lithuanians near Usvyat, Alexander struck at the enemy and defeated him again.
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So were repulsed with the glory of all three of the enemy north-western Russia. But Alexander could not long remain here, because things have changed in the east in 1246 with the death of his father. After Yaroslav seniority and Vladimir table inherited from antiquity, the latter's brother, Svyatoslav, who approved of his nephews, the sons of Yaroslav, the inheritance given to them by the late Grand Duke. Until that time, Alexander managed to avoid contact with the Tartars. But in 1247 Batu sent to tell him: "I have submitted many people, surely you do not want to surrender one of my power?" If you want to preserve their land, then come to worship me, and you'll see the honor and glory of my kingdom ". For the Tartars, Alexander chose a completely different way than western and northern enemies. With few, poverty and fragmentation of the then Russian population in the eastern and southern regions could not think about that fight with arms against the Tartars. It remained to submit to the Tatars, fully recognize the power of the great Khans. Alexander understood this way, the first Russian prince firmly joined to it. Personal charm, the glory of his exploits have made him a successful journey. Usually a stern and haughty to the vanquished Batu took Alexander and his brother Andrew very kindly. The chronicler says that Khan, seeing Alexander, who told his nobles: "All that I talked about it, all the truth: there is none like this prince".
By the will of Batu Alexander and Andrew were supposed to go to Mongolia, where the brothers, according to some accounts, was a big argument about who what a municipality to own. Andrew received Vladimir, and Alexander made Kyiv. Hard to say what caused such an alignment. Kiev has traditionally been the main capital city, but after the Tartar invasion had fallen into complete neglect. Perhaps the Tatars in words to pay tribute to the reign of Alexander the Great, but were afraid to put in Vladimir, which is connected with the real stareyshinstvo over the conquered Russian lands.
Be that as it may, on his return, Alexander did not go to Kiev, but stayed to rule in Novgorod, retaining and his father's fiefdom Pereslavl-Zaleski.
In 1252, Alexander went to the Don to his son Batu, Sartak, which controls all the affairs due to senility of her father. It is believed that he complained to his brother, who snatched his seniority and does not fulfill its responsibilities regarding the Tartars. Sartak Alexander liked even more than Batu, and since that time between them established close friendship. Sartak confirmed Alexander's Vladimir table, and against Andrei sent troops under the command of Nevryuya. Under Pereyaslavl they met Andreev army and broke it. Andrew fled to Novgorod, but was not accepted there and went to Sweden. Tatars have Pereyaslavl, captured here a family of Yaroslav's brother Andreeva, murdered his governor, captured the inhabitants, and went back to the Horde. Alexander came to reign in Vladimir, Andrew also returned to Russia and made peace with his brother, who reconciled him with Khan and gave a lot of Suzdal. Instead, he left himself in Novgorod, the son of Basil.
Soon after, Alexander began another feud with his brother, Jaroslaw, prince of Tver. In 1254 he sat in Pskov and hence was plotting against Vasily Alexandrovich. In 1255 Novgorod expelled Basil and transferred to her from Pskov Yaroslav. Alexander promptly appeared with shelves under Torzhok and reunite with Basil, began to prepare to march to Novgorod. Yaroslav, not waiting for him, left the city. Then began the custom of Novgorod noisy Candlelight. Black men attacked the best, they intrigued against one another, but ultimately dismissed the mayor Ananias and took again Basil.
Meanwhile, in 1255 died Batu. His son was slain uncle Sartak Berke, who seized power. In 1257 Burke ordered a second census in Russia (the first was still under Yaroslav Vsevolodovich) to collect tribute. Arrived chislenniki, found the whole land of Suzdal, Ryazan and Murom, put foremen, captains, commanders of thousands and myriarchs did not consider only the abbots, Chernetsov, priests and kliroshan. In Novgorod the news came that the Tatars with the consent of Alexander want to impose a tribute, and this first free city. All Summer in Novgorod continued confusion, and in winter killed mayor Mihalko. Immediately after the Horde came Tatar ambassadors, who began to demand tithes and tamgas. Novgorodians disagreed, gave gifts to the Khan and released after the world. Basil, son of Nevsky, was against tribute. Alexander was angry and appeared in Novgorod itself. Basil when his approach went to Pskov. Alexander chased him out and sent to the Suzdal district, and his advisers severely punished. Over the next year passed peacefully, but when the winter of 1259 came to Alexander and with him the Tartars with their wives, then again started strong rebellion. The Tatars were frightened and began to talk to Alexander: "Give us the guards, and then kill us," the prince told to guard them at night son posadnikovu all children Boyar. The Tatars got tired of waiting. "Give us the number, or will flee away" - they said. Meanwhile, in Novgorod, as usual, were two hostile Class Party, Some townspeople did not want to give the number. "We'll die for the sacred honor of Sofia and the houses of angels" - they said. But others require the consent of the census, and finally mastered, when Alexander the Tatars had slid from Mounds. Tatars began to ride through the streets at home and rewrite. Taking the number, they are "gone, gone after them, and Alexander, leaving his son in Novgorod Dmitri. Since then, Novgorod, although not seen in a more Tatar officials involved in the payment of tribute, delivered from all over Russia Khan.
Novgorod calmed down, but the excitement rose in the land of Vladimir. Here in 1262 the people were removed from patient violence of the Tatar-farmers tribute, what then were mostly Khiva merchants. Method of collecting the tribute was very otyagotitelen. In the case of arrears tax farmers accounts for more interest, and inability to pay prisovershennoy hiring new people in bondage. In Rostov, Vladimir, Suzdal, Yaroslavl and Pereslavl up Chambers, tax-farmers evicted from everywhere, and in Yaroslavl killed Izosimov tax farmer who received the Mahometans in the sake of Tartar Baskakov and worse stranger oppressed his former countrymen.
Burke was in a rage and began to collect the shelves to go to a new campaign against Russia. Alexander, wishing otmolit people from harm, went again to the Horde and meeting with Burke, managed to dissuade him from the march on Russia. Burke proved to be more merciful to the Russian. Than could be expected. He forgave beating operators, as well as freed from the obligation to send Russian troops to the Tatar army. Perhaps Alexander had in his work and through the Persian war, which is heavily occupied by Khan. But this was the last thing Alexander. The patient went to it from the Horde and the road in Gorodets Volga, died Nov. 14, 1263, "worked hard for the Russian land, for Novgorod and Pskov in, for all the great reign, giving your stomach for the Orthodox faith '. The body of Alexander was buried in Vladimir in the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin.
All the monarchs of the world. Russia. 600 brief biographies. Konstantin Ryzhov. Moscow, 1999.
Alexander Nevsky (c.. 1220, Pereslavl - 1263, Gorodets) - Prince, commander. The son of Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, grandson of Vsevolod the Big Nest. In 1228, 1230, 1232 and 1233 was the governor of Novgorod, along with his elder brother Theodore. In 1236 my father had gone to reign in Kiev, but "in Novegorodi plant a son Odeksandra" to-ing rules for five years, married a princess of Polotsk. In 1240 won a victory over the Swedish knights embarked camp at the confluence of the River. Izhora the Neva, courage and talent of the commander, for which he was nicknamed Nevsky. Quarreled with Novgorod, had gone to reign in Pereslavl-Zaleski. Returned at the request of citizens. In 1242 defeated the German knights on the ice of Lake Peipsi and made peace with the Livonian Order and its allies. Several times, Alexander was forced to go to the Horde to get labels to rule first in Kiev, and then across the North-Vost. Russia. Skillful politician Alexander secured the release of Russian. from participation in the campaigns of conquest of the Tatar khans and prevented the invasion of Rus. They reinforced princely power in the country. Died led. Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal, returning from the Horde. Is ranked as the Orthodox Church a saint.
Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997
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. Years of life - (13/05/1221? - 14.11.1263 +)
. Parents: Jaroslav Vsevolod (1191-1246 +), Theodosia;
. Children: Alexandra, daughter Brjachislav Polotsk =>
. Basil (about 1240-1271 +), book
. Novgorod (1255-1257);
In 1257 Vasily opposed the imposition of tribute (tamgas and tithes) to Novgorodians. As soon as his father, Alexander arrived with the Tartar baskaks in Novgorod, Basil went to Pskov. Alexander chased him and from there, subjected to disgrace and sent in Suzdal.
Eudoxia, wife of Constantine Rostislavich Smolensky;
Dmitri (1246-1294 +);
Andrew (1255-1304 +);
Daniel (1265-1303 +);
Prince of Novgorod (1236-1252);
Conducted. Prince of Kiev (1248-1263);
Conducted. Prince Vladimir (1252-1263);
. The beginning of the reign
. The first information about Alexander relate to 1228, when Yaroslav Vsevolod, prince of Novgorod, came into conflict with the townspeople and was forced to drive off in Pereslavl-Zaleski, his ancestral inheritance
. Despite his departure, he left in Novgorod in the care of trusted boyars of his two young sons, Theodore and Alexander. After the death of Theodore Alexander is the eldest son of Yaroslav Vsevolodovich.
In 1236 he was put on the Novgorod principality, and in 1239 he married Princess Alexandra of Polotsk Bryachislavne. In the early years of his reign he had to deal with the strengthening of Novgorod, as the East threatened the Mongols-Tatars. On the river Shelon Alexander built several fortresses.
Victory on the Neva. Battle on the Ice
Universal glory of the young prince brought a victory won by them on the bank of the Neva River at the mouth of the river Izhora July 15, 1240, Mr.. over the Swedish contingent, which, according to legend, commanded by the future ruler Birger Jarl of Sweden (in Swedish but the Chronicle of Eric XIV century. Life Birger this campaign is not mentioned). Alexander personally took part in the battle, "his king vzlozhi print on his face ostrym kopiem".
It is believed that this victory for the prince became known as Nevsky, but the first time this nickname is found in the sources only in the XIV. Since it is known that some of the descendants of the prince and were nicknamed the Neva, it is possible in such a way for them affirm the holdings in this area. Traditionally believed that the battle in 1240, Mr.. prevent the loss Russ shores of the Gulf of Finland, the Swedish halt aggression on the land of Novgorod and Pskov.
Upon his return from the banks of the Neva because of another conflict, Alexander was forced to leave and go to Novgorod Pereslavl-Zaleski. Meanwhile, over Novgorod under threat from the west. Livonian Order, collecting German crusaders Baltic, Danish knights from Revel, with the support of the papal curia and the long-standing rivals of Novgorod Pskov, Novgorod invaded land.
From Novgorod sent an embassy to Yaroslav Vsevolodovich for help. He sent to Novgorod armed group led by his son Andrew Yaroslavovich, which was soon replaced by Alexander. He freed the occupied knights Koporye and Vodskuyu ground, and then knocked out the German garrison in Pskov. Inspired by the success of Novgorod invaded the territory of the Livonian Order and began to ravage the settlements Ests, tributaries of the Crusaders. Left out of Riga knights destroyed advanced Russian regiment Domash Tverdislavicha, forcing Alexander to withdraw his troops to the border of the Livonian Order, which was held on Lake Peipsi. Both sides began preparing for a decisive battle. It happened on the ice of Lake Peipsi, the Voronoi stone 5 April 1242, Mr.. and went down in history as the Battle on the Ice. German knights formed a wedge, or rather, a narrow and very deep column, whose task was to saturate the center of the Novgorod troops. Russian army was built on the classical scheme, worked out yet Svyatoslav. Center - foot regiment of the charges brought forward archers on the flanks - the cavalry. Novgorod Chronicle and the German news unanimously argue that wedge struck Russian center, but this time struck the flank of the Russian cavalry, and knights were surrounded. In the hard cross section Russian defeated the Knights, the Order has lost 500 knights taken prisoner more than 50. Livonian Order was faced with the need to make peace in which the Crusaders refused the claims on Russian soil, as well as to transfer part of Latgale
. The summer of that year, Alexander had defeated seven Lithuanian detachments, . attackers in the north-western Russian lands, . in 1245 rescued Toropets, . captured Lithuania, . Lithuanian squad destroyed the lake Zhiztsa and, . Finally, . defeated the Lithuanian militia under Usvyat,
After the death of Yaroslav Vsevolodovich (1191-1246 +) took precedence of his brother, Sviatoslav. However, in 1248, his nephew Michael took the great principality of Kiev, in violation of all rights and customs. Soon Michael was killed in a battle with the Lithuanians.
Svyatoslav went to the Golden Horde to defend their rights, but the label on the great reigning received Andrey II of Vladimir (1210-1264 +), Alexander of Kostroma by will of their father was Yaroslav Kiev.
Alexander and the Horde
Successful military operations of Alexander Nevsky for a long time ensured the safety of the western borders of Russia, but in the east of the Russian princes had to bow to the much more powerful enemy - the Mongol-Tatars.
In 1243 Batu Khan, the Mongol ruler of the western powers - the Golden Horde, the label gave the Grand Duke of Vladimir, the management of the conquered Russian lands father of Alexander - Yaroslav Vsevolodovichu. Great Khan of the Mongols Giiyuk called the Grand Duke to his capital, Karakorum, where the September 30, 1246, Mr.. Yaroslav died suddenly (on the standard version, he was poisoned). Then Korakorum were caused by his sons - Alexander and Andrew. While Yaroslaviches traveled to Mongolia, the Khan Giiyuk died, and the new owner of the Karakorum-khan's wife indiscriminately Gamish decided to appoint the Grand Duke Andrew, Alexander also received the management devastated southern Russia and Kiev.
Only in 1249 the brothers were able to return home. Alexander in his new ownership did not go and returned to Novgorod, where the gravely ill. Around this time, Pope Innocent IV sent an embassy to Alexander Nevsky with the proposal to adopt Catholicism, allegedly in exchange for his assistance in the joint struggle against the Mongols. This proposal was rejected by Alexander in the most categorical terms.
In 1252, Mr.. indiscriminately in the Karakorum-Gamish was overthrown by the new Great Khan Mongke (Mengke). Using this fact and decided to remove from the great reign of Andrew Yaroslavich, Baty presented the label of Grand Duke Alexander Nevsky, who was urgently summoned to the capital of the Golden Horde, Sarai. But the younger brother of Alexander, Andrew Jaroslawicz, supported by his brother Jaroslaw, the prince of Tver, and Daniel Romanovich, Galician prince, refused to abide by the decision of Batu.
To punish the rebellious princes Mongolian Batu sent a detachment under the command of Nevryuya (t. n. "Nevryuevu's Men"), resulting in Andrew and Yaroslav fled beyond the North-Eastern Russia. Later, in 1253, Mr.. Jaroslav Yaroslavovych was invited to the Principality of Pskov, and in 1255, Mr.. - In Novgorod. And Novgorod 'vygnasha out' his former Prince Basil - son of Alexander Nevsky. But Alexander, were put back in Novgorod Vasily, severely punish the vigilantes, who failed to protect the rights of his son - they were dazzled.
The new ruler of the Golden Horde Khan Berke (from 1255) was introduced in Russia is common to conquered lands system of taxation tribute. At 1257g. in Novgorod, as well as other Russian cities, were sent to 'chislenniki' for poll tax census. This aroused the indignation of Novgorod, which supported Prince Vasili. In Novgorod uprising began, which lasted about one and a half years, during which the people of Novgorod did not submit to the Mongols. Alexander personally restored order, executing the most active participants in the riots. Vasili Alexandrovich was captured and detained. Novgorod was broken and orders to send a tribute to the Golden Horde. The new governor of Novgorod from 1259 g. became Prince Dmitry Aleksandrovich.
In 1262 riots broke out in the cities of Suzdal, where they were slaughtered khan Baskakov and driven Tatar merchants. To appease the Khan Berke, Alexander Nevsky personally went with the gifts of the Horde. Khan kept the Prince beside her through the winter and summer, only in the fall, Alexander was able to return to Vladimir, but on the road and fell ill on Nov. 14, 1263, Mr.. in Gorodets died. His body was buried in the Vladimir Monastery of the Nativity of the Virgin
. Canonization of St. Alexander Nevsky
. With the terrible trials that shook the Russian lands, Alexander Nevsky was able to find the strength to resist the Western invaders, shot to fame of the great Russian military commander, as well as laid the foundations of the relationship with the Golden Horde
. In the ruin of Russia the Mongol-Tatars skillful politician, he loosened the yoke of burden, had saved Russia from total destruction.
Already in the 1280-ies in Vladimir begins veneration as a saint Alexander Nevsky, later he was officially canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church. Alexander Nevsky was the only Orthodox secular ruler, not only in Russia but also throughout Europe, which is not compromised with the Catholic Church for the sake of retaining power.
With the participation of his son, Dmitry Alexandrovich and Metropolitan Kirill was written hagiographical tale, a widely disseminated at a later time widely known (survived 15 editions). In a feat of patience and endurance in 1549, Alexander Nevsky was canonized in his honor in 1710 founded the Alexander Nevsky Lavra (St. Petersburg). In 1724. Peter I ordered to go there to transport the remains of Prince. He decided to celebrate the memory of Alexander Nevsky August 30 in the day the victorious Nystadt peace with Sweden. In 1725, Empress Catherine I established the Order of Alexander Nevsky - one of the highest awards of Russia, the pre-1917. During the Great Patriotic War in 1942. was established by the Soviet Order of Alexander Nevsky, who awarded the commanders of the platoon to division, inclusive, show personal courage and ensured the successful operations of its parts.