ANDREI I YURIEVICH( Prince)
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Biography ANDREI I YURIEVICH
ANDREI I YURIEVICH Bogolyubskii (knee 9)
From the kind of Vladimir-Suzdal Grand. kn. Son Yuri Vladimirovich I Dolgoruky and Polovtsian book., Daughter of Khan Aepy Osekevicha. Genus. app. 1110 g. Kn. Vyshgorodsky in 1149, 1156 gg. Kn. Turovsky, Pnnsky and Dorogobuzhsky in 1150-1151 gg.. Kn. Suzdal and Rostov in the years 1155-1169. Conducted. kn. Vladimir in 1169-1175 he.
Wife: from 1148 g. daughter of a boyar Stepan Ivanovich Kuchka, Ulita (+ 1175).
+ 29 June 1175, Mr..
In 1149, after capturing Kiev, Yuri put Andrew on the reign in Vyshgorod. In the same year, in a campaign against Izyaslav II Mstislavovitch Andrew displayed remarkable courage, from which it seems, no one expected. Together with his brothers, he went up to Lutsk, where shut Izyaslav brother, Vladimir. When they approached the city, . some of its gates, made the force of infantry and began to skirmish with them, the rest Yurievich never thought, . that Andrew wants to hit on the infantry, . because the flag was not raised, no majestic feat of arms was Andrew in rank, . says the chronicler, . he sought the praise of one God, and so he entered above all in the battle, . squad behind him, . began a hot battle,
. Andrew broke his spear and subjected to the greatest danger: the enemy's warriors surrounded him from all sides; horse under him was wounded by two spears, . the third got into the saddle, . and from the walls of the city fell on lego rocks, . as rain, is a German wanted to stab his spear, . but God saved him,
. Father, uncle and all the brothers rejoiced when they saw him alive, and the boyars father showered him with praise, because he fought bravely in that battle all. His horse, badly wounded, but managed to make his master, and fell; Andrew told to bury him on the river Stry. Later, . Rutskoi in battle, . as soon as both sides began to converge for the battle, . Andrew, . grasping a spear, . I went ahead and first of all faced with the enemy, his spear was broken up, . shield foiled, . helmet sleeping with his head, . horse, . wounded in the nostrils, . began to rush at him in different directions,
Helping his father in all his expeditions, Andrew, as one might think, did not approve of his persistent desire to acquire Southern Rus. In 1156, he abandoned his Vyshgorod and without the permission of his father went to Suzdal parish. From Vyshtorodskogo nunnery, he took with him a famous icon of St.. Virgin, which later became revered as the greatest Russian holy. As the legend goes, the way the icons on the north was accompanied by many miracles, and not far from Vladimir horses under the icon suddenly stood. The prince ordered to spend the night here. At night, Mother of God appeared to him in dreams and forbidden to conduct an icon in Rostov, as he first intended (or pretended to be going) and told me to leave her in Vladimir. Andrew did just that, a vision built on the site of the village, called Bogoljubovo. Later, Andrew built a rich stone church and tower. Eventually Bogolyubovo became his favorite residence
. Tatishchev describes the appearance and character of Andrew: "This prince of growth was not п¦п¦п¦я-п+пT great, . but broad shoulders and strong, . almost like a bow who could pull, . . face flushed, . curly hair, . was courageous in battle, . lover of truth, . courage him for all his princes feared and revered, . although often with their wives and warriors rejoiced, . but his wife and the wine they did not have,
. He is always to violence and the routine was done, for so little sleep, but many books to read, and on the boards and in the massacre Zemstvo with nobles practiced, and their children to diligently taught skazuya them that the honor and the benefit is in justice, reprisal and courage ".
In May 1157 Yuri died in Kiev. Andrew took power in Suzdal and Rostov, but did not go to these old cities, and made the capital city of Vladimir. This particular young little town he decorated the magnificent buildings, giving it unprecedented in the north-east Russia pomp and splendor. Contemporaries saw Andrew devout and pious man. He could often be found in the temple in prayer with tears of emotion in his eyes. Often at night he entered the temple, he lit candles and prayed before the image. However, he remained a man of rigid and authoritarian. In the methods of his reign was a lot of new, previously unseen in Russia. With his brothers Andrew treated as a true samovlastets. None of them he gave parish in Suzdal, . and in 1162 completely expelled from the Duchy of her stepmother, . Greek Princess Olga, . second wife Yuriev, . with her children, Mstislav, . Vasilyok and eight Vsevolod, . then removed and nephews, . two sons Rostislav Yurevich,
. With the boyars Andrew also did not live in a comradely way, did not consult with them, what are accustomed to the boyars of old Russia. Many Jurjevyh boyars he drove, the other is in prison. For many reasons it can be considered the first true Great Tsar. Following his example in the future, the prince of Vladimir gradually transformed the northern outskirts of Old Russia in the center of the great state of new time.
'Even with Andrei north-eastern Russia is beginning to have an increasing impact on the lives of surrounding land. In 1164 Andrew and his son Izyaslav, brother Jaroslaw and Murom Prince Yuri successfully fought against Kamsky, Bulgarians, they broke a lot of people and took the banner. Prince of Bulgaria with a small retinue barely managed to escape to the great city (Bulgar). After this victory, Andrew took the Bulgarian town of Pozega Bryahimov and three other cities. But the main and constant objective was to humiliate the importance of Andrei Kiev, deprive him of his seniority on the ancient Russian cities, move it to the seniority of Vladimir, but at the same time to subdue a free and rich in Novgorod. He sought to have in their desire to have these two major cities with their lands during the reign of the princes to whom he wants to plant and which, in gratitude for this, will recognize his stareyshinstvo.
However, excessive sternness prevented him achieve the desired. In 1158 Andrew sent Novgorod say: "If you knows: I want to look good and Novgorod and dashing". Novgorodians embarrassed for the first time yielded to the demands of Andrei and drove out of a David-and Svetoslav Mstislavich, and their place taken by his nephew Andrew Mstislav Rostislavich. But then Andrew suddenly changed his mind, withdrew Mstislav of Novgorod and ordered to take back Svyatoslav. With no small annoyance Novgorod agreed again to Svyatoslav, but of peace, the prince they could not be. Disputes and stormy Chambers grew into a real war. Svyatoslav, expelled from Novgorod, he burned the New Trading and Luke. Novgorodians repeatedly asked Prince Andrew to change, but he invariably replied: "No you another prince, but Svyatoslav". Andrew's persistence finally embittered Novgorodians: in 1168 they broke the supporters of Svyatoslav and took them to the princes of the Roman Mstislavich, son of the hated Andrew Mstislav Izyaslavich. It was a sign of defiance, and the winter of 1169 of Vladimir, Prince sent to Novgorod huge? army led by his son, Mstislav. Scary devastated neighborhood of Novgorod, Andreyev's men had to retreat without having gained anything. However, in Novgorod famine. Grain deliveries was not out of nowhere, and the townspeople surrendered showed Roman road (that is chased away from you) and sent to Andrew over the world, and Andrew sent them Rurik Rostislavich, but after a quarrel with Rostislavich, son of Yuri.
Similarly,'s relations with Kiev. In 1168, after the death of Rostislav Mstislavovitch, in Kiev sat an old enemy Andreev, Mstislav II of Kiev. Andrew was waiting only a pretext. To start a war against him, and soon found an occasion - in the same year, as already mentioned, Mstislav, against the wishes Andrew, put him in Novgorod, the son of Roman. Then Andrew went south with his son Mstislav Rostovtsev, the Vladimir and Suzdal. After a three-day siege, the army stormed in Kiev for the first time in history has taken him on board: two winners of the day looting the city, sparing no one and nothing: the church burned and plundered the inhabitants, some were beaten, others were seized, wives separated from husbands and taken into captivity. Polovtsi lit it and Caves Monastery, but the monks managed to extinguish the fire, were then in Kiev, says the chronicler, in all the people moaning and yearning, sorrow and tears of the inconsolable continuing. Andrew achieved his goal. Ancient Kiev lost its secular stareyshinstvo. Once rich city, . deserved. from attending his foreign name of the second of Constantinople, . he already before gradually losing its luster because of civil wars, . now was robbed, . burned, . deprived of a significant number of residents, . killed or taken away in captivity, . insulted and humiliated by other Russian lands,
. Andrew put it in his brother Gleb, with the intention to continue to plant there a prince, what he wants to.
The death of Gleb in 1171 Andrew has sent in Kiev Roman Rostislavich. But soon the prince of Vladimir was told that Hleb Yurievich did not die a natural death. Andrew sent Rostislavich brothers say: "Give me Gregory Hotovicha, Stepantsov and Olek-su Svyatoslavich - are enemies of us all, they wore my brother Gleb". Rostislavich, believing, apparently, unfounded accusation against the boyars, did not listen to Andrew, but only released from a Gregory Hotovicha. Then Andrew sent a message to Roman: "Do not walk in my will with his brothers, so go away from Kiev, Davyd of Vyshgorod, Mstislav - from Belgorod, Smolensk go all in and share it as you please". Rurik, . Davyd and Mstislav Rostislavich sent to Andrew to say: "Brother!" We call you the father of a, . You kissed the cross and stand in the cross to kiss, . wish you well, . but now our brother Roman you brought from Kyiv and we seem way out of the Russian land without our fault, . so let God judge between us and the power of the Cross ",
. Then went even steeper. Andrew, . says the chronicler, . filled arrogancy, . very angry, . hoping to force, . fence many troops, . fueled by anger, . Mihnea mechnika called her and told him: "Go to Rostislavich and tell them: do not go to my will, . so go the same: you, . Rurik, . in Smolensk, . his brother, . in his paternal; Davyd say: you go in Berlad, . in the Russian land is not'll have you to be, and Mstislav said: you all to instigator, . not you'll have to be in the Russian land ",
. Mstislav ordered to cut Andreev Ambassador head and beard, and sent it back to Andrew with the words: "We are still revered by you, . as father, . for love, . but if you sent to us with such speeches do not like to see Prince, . but as podruchniku and the common man, . then do, . that conspired, . but God will judge us ",
. Andrew opal in the face when he heard from Mihnea response Mstislav, and ordered him to immediately collect the army: gather the Rostov, Suzdal, Vladimirtsov, Pereyaslavets, Belozertsev, Muromtsev, Novgorod and Ryazan. Andrew found them, and found 50 000 and he sent them his son Yuri with this injunction: "Rurik and Davyd thrown out of my paternal and Mstislav grab and not doing anything to him, bring me". On the way south to the army joined many of the princes, all them had accumulated more than twenty. For the first time in many years, gathered under one banner of Polotsk, Turov, Pinsk, gorodnenskie, Ryazan and Chernigov, Seversky, Smolensk, Pereyaslav princes. But this ambitious campaign, like the one that was started in the previous year against Novgorod, ended in a stalemate. Nine weeks, the army stood against Vyshgorod, where he sat down Mstislav Rostislavich, but he could not get it. And just to Kiev stepped ally Rostislav Jaroslav. Izyaslavich Lutsky, everything is in disarray suddenly ran out of Mstislav Vyshgorod chased after them, many interrupted and captured. "That's it, - says the chronicler - Prince Andrew was a nerd in all cases, and destroyed his mind incontinency". And in fact, contemporaries saw clearly, that the failure of Andrew at Novgorod and Kiev have taken place not because of lack of material resources, but because of his stubborn reluctance to conduct a flexible policy. For all his cleverness and resourcefulness Andrew did not set a lasting order in the Russian lands. Contemporaries believed that the sole motive of all his activity was ambition. It was some years before the seeds sown of a policy already in the new historical conditions have given abundant seedlings and resulted in the consolidation of Russian lands around Moscow. In the meantime, the inflexible austerity Andrew all thrill and hatred, and the surrounding nobles were no exception.
Once Andrew had executed one of the closest relatives of his wife, sons of Kuchka. Then the brother of the executed Yakim sons of Kuchka together with his son Peter and some of his other servants of the princes decided to get rid of his master. The plot soon stuck domestic servants Prince - a kind of jar (Ossetians) on behalf of Anba and even a stranger named Ephraim Moizich. All in all, the conspirators were twenty people, they said: "These days, he executed the sons of Kuchka, and tomorrow, and punishes us, thoughts about this prince!" In anger and fear for their fate and the envy of the conspirators encouraged to favorite Andreev, some Procopius. June 28, 1175, Friday, at lunch time, in the village Bogolyubovo, where they usually lived Andrew, they were gathered together in a house Kuchkova-in-law of Peter and they decided to kill the prince on the next day, 29-second night. At the appointed hour the conspirators armed and went to Andrei's bedroom, but fear fell upon them, they fled from the hall, went into the cellar of wine and drank, drunk, went back to the vestibule. Going up to the bedroom door, one of them began to call the prince: "Sir!" Sir! "To find out whether there Andrew. He heard a voice, asked: "Who's there?" He replied: "Procopius". "The boy, - said Andrey then sleeping in his room servant - this is not Procopius?" Meanwhile, the murderer, when he heard the voice of Andrew, began banging on the door and broke down their. Andrew jumped up and wanted to grab a sword, which was always with him (the sword belonged to the first St.. Boris), but the sword was not. Klyuchnik Anba stole his day of the bedroom. While, . when Andrew was looking for a sword, . two killers jumped into the bedroom and rushed at him, . but Andrew was strong and has already. a knock down, . both ran into the other and, . no difference at first in the dark, . injured his, . lying on the floor, . then rushed to Andrew, he long resisted, . despite, . that all sides flogged him with swords, . Saber, . stabbed with spears,
. "Impious, - he shouted to them. - Why you want to do the same thing Goryaser (murderer St.. Gleb. - K. P.)? What I did you wrong? If you spill my blood on the earth, then God will mark you for my bread ". Finally, Andrew had fallen under the blows; killers, . thinking, . that's all over, . took his wounded and went out of the bedroom, . trembling, . but, . As soon as they came, . Andrew got to his feet and went under the porch, . loud groaning; killer heard groans, and returned, . One of them said: "I saw, . Prince went down with the passage ",
. "Well, let's go look for him," - answered the other, entered the bedroom and saw that it was not there, began to say: "we have now perished, let us look quickly". Lighted candles, and found the prince's blood trail: Andrew was sitting at the staircase pillar, this time the fight could not be prolonged: Peter cut off the prince's hand, others finished him off.
Buried in the church they built the Virgin (Assumption Cathedral) in Vladimir.
All the monarchs of the world. Russia. 600 brief biographies. Konstantin Ryzhov. Moscow, 1999.
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Andrew Bogoliubsky (ca. 1112 - 1174, with. Bogolyubovo) - Vladimir-Suzdal prince. Son of Yuri Dolgoruky. In 1155 he was put in the reign of his father in Vyshgorod. An exceptional diplomat, an experienced military leader, well-educated and had close ties with the church, in spite of his father Andrew's will ( "not seen as those concerning the will") went to the rundown of the Rostov-Suzdal. In "Suzhdalskoy earth" he made the capital of the principality, Vladimir, . making a small fortress in the rich town with majestic cathedral, . many churches and impregnable walls with gold, . Silver, . Copper gate, . and ten miles from Vladimir laid on r.Nerli "a stone city, . name Bogolyubov ",
. Andrew won enormous authority and after the death of his father began to pursue an independent policy, seeking to subdue the warring princes and boyars' estates. For three years Andrew has become a powerful prince, who was able to create a North-East. future his political center of Russia. In 1164 made a triumphant march to the Volga Bulgars, and in 1169 won the Kiev and burned him: "And there was in Kiev at vsih chelovetsah groaning and Tuga, and grief neutishimaya". He clashed with his fellow nobles, organized a conspiracy, and was killed by them. Anthropologist MM. Gerasimov created by Andrew skull sculpture.
Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.
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Andrew Bogolyubskii (ca. 1111 - 1174), Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal (since 1157), son of Yuri Dolgoruky. Make the capital g. Vladimir. Killed by the boyars in his residence with. Bogoljubovo.
Andrei Bogolyubskii (about 1111 - June 29, 1174), Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal and the Grand Prince of Kiev (from 1157). The eldest son of Yuri Dolgoruky and the daughter of the Polovtsian Khan Aepy. Married first marriage to the daughter of the first owner of Moscow Stefan Ivanovich piles, and the second on the captive, brought back from a hike in 1164 on the Volga-Kama Bulgaria. Children, apparently, did not.
The beginning of the reign in 1149 Andrew has received from his father in holding Vyshgorod, but a year later was transferred to the western Russian territories, where the city had Turov, Pinsk and Peresopnitsu. In 1151 he was with the consent of the father returned to his native Suzdal, where, apparently, had a lot of (Vladimir-on-Klyazma). In 1155 he was transferred again to Vyshgorod, where contrary to the will of his father fled to Vladimir-Zaleski, took with him an icon of the Virgin, written, according to legend, St. Luke the Evangelist (the image of Our Lady of Vladimir). After the death of Yuri Dolgoruky in 1157 Andrew inherited the throne of Kiev, but in Kiev, in spite of custom, did not go live. Then he was elected prince of Rostov, Suzdal and Vladimir. Relying on its 'milostnikov' (servants), Andrew in 1162 drove out of the limits of Rostov-Suzdal lands not only of its relatives, but also his father's retinue. Simultaneously, he moved the capital from Suzdal to Vladimir, and his residence - in the Bogoliubov-on-Nerli (for which the nickname).
Relations with the church about 1160 Andrew took first in the history of Russia attempt to divide the Russian church into two Metropolitan. He appealed to the Patriarch of Constantinople to establish a second metropolitan see in Vladimir, independent of Kiev, but this request was rejected. In 1168 Andrew sends Suzdal Abbot Theodore at the big cathedral in Kiev in order to achieve the displacement of Metropolitan Constantine. Finding no support from the Russian bishops, Theodore went to Constantinople, hoping to persuade the patriarch was appointed Metropolitan of himself, but has only Subjecting the Bishop of Rostov. In 1169 Andrei Bogolubsky conflict with quarrelsome and ambitious Theodore, which ended with the prince gave the bishop of the Metropolitan Court in Kyiv, where Theodore was executed on charges of heresy.
. Culture under Andrei Bogolubsky During his reign in Vladimir and the suburbs of a widespread construction: in 1164 were built the Golden Gate (like Kiev, . Constantinople and Jerusalem), . city-lock Bogoljubovo, . as well as a number of churches, . in t,
. h. famous Cathedral of the Assumption (1158-61), the Protection-in-Nerli (1165), the Nativity of the Virgin in Bogolyubov (1158-65).
According to some researchers, Andrew Bogolyubskii sought to free themselves from Byzantine influence in Russia. He, in particular, invited for the construction of temples of Vladimir Western architects. The trend towards greater cultural autonomy can be traced and the introduction of new festivals in Russia, not taken in Byzantium. At the initiative of the Prince were set feasts of the Savior (1 August) and the Protection of the Blessed Virgin Mary (1 October).
On the night of 29 to 30 June 1174 Andrew was killed in Bogolyubovo group of conspirators from his entourage. Initially he was buried in Vladimir's Assumption Church, later the remains were repeatedly postponed. In 1934 the burial of Andrew Bogolyubsky were examined and identified by archaeologists and anthropologists, a skull found in a burial, a sculptor and anthropologist M. M. Gerasimov was able to recreate the unique sculptural portrait of the prince.