Vsevolod III YURIEVICH( From the kind of Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Dukes)
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Biography Vsevolod III YURIEVICH
Vsevolod III Big Nest YURIEVICH (knee 9)
From the kind of Vladimir-Suzdal Grand. kn. Son Yuri Vladimirovich Dolgoruky and the Greek princess Olga. Genus. in 1154, Mr.. Conducted. kn. Kiev in 1173, Mr.. Kn. Persyaslavsky in 1176 - 1177 he. Conducted. kn. Vladimir in 1177-1212.
1) daughter of King Czech Shvarna, King's daughter Maria (+ 19 March 1206);
2) daughter of Prince. Vasilko Polotsk of Vitebsk, Prince. Love.
+ 15 April. 1212 g.
In 1162, Andrew Bogoliubsky expelled from his parish his father's widow, Princess Olga, along with her children. The exiles went to Greece, where they were cordially received by Emperor Manuel. Older brothers and mother of Vsevolod and remained there, but Vsevolod some time later returned to Russia and might be expected, received from his brother Michael Gorodets Ostersky.
In 1169, along with many other princes Vsevolod participated in the storming and looting of Kiev. In 1173 Andrew expelled from Kiev Roman Rostislavich and wanted to give great reign of his brother Michael, but he was afraid and gave Rostislav Kiev Vsevolod. Vsevolod stayed in the capital for five weeks, after which Rostislavich secretly entered the night in Kiev, took him and his nephew Yaropolk Rostislavich, as well as all the boyars and put on a great reign of his brother Rurik.
Soon Rurik reconciled with Michael, entered into an alliance with him and let Vsevolod freedom. Apparently the brothers have promised to help Rostislavich in their war with Andrew Bogolyubsky. However, they did not keep word. In the same year they went with the Andreeva Ratiu in Kiev and Vyshgorod, and when the campaign ended in failure - have lost their districts in the Russian land fled to Chernigov to Svyatoslav. Vsevolodovichu. Here lived their nephews, Yaropolk and Mstislav Rostislavich, also had no counties
. In 1175, . after the death of Andrei Bogolyubsky, . the Rostov and Suzdal sent to Chernigov Rostislav call to his reign, . Rostislavich, . despite, . that called them alone, . did not want to go without uncle, . Michael and Vsevolod, . and said: "Either good, . or dashing all of us, let's go all the four: two Yurevich, . Yes, two Rostislav ",
. But soon the friendship between uncles and nephews came to an end. The Rostov and Suzdal so hated Bogolyubsky, that even would not hear of his brothers. Michael was expelled from Vladimir, and Vsevolod this time, it seems, in general, did not get to Suzdal land and returned to Chernigov. After a short time and with Vladimirec Pereyaslavets, without asking is a leading city, sent a call to Michael and Vsevolod. Yurievich came and sat down at the Tanning smashed Suzdal squad. Michael with honor and glory Came to Vladimir, and his brother sent to reign in Pereyaslavl Zaleski. Rostislavich fled to Novgorod, the Rostov and Suzdal were forced to kiss the cross to Michael, but only waiting. The case against him.
In 1177, Michael died in Gorodets Volga. Rostovtsev, not even waiting for the certainty of his death, sent for Mstislav Rostislavich. Mstislav came to the call, collected Rostovtsev, the whole squad, and went with them to Vladimir. Meanwhile Vladimirec called from Pereyaslavl Vsevolod and went out to the Golden Gate, he kissed the cross, and his children. Vsevolod, . learn about the arrival Rostislavich, . collected Vladimirtsev, . his retinue, . boyars, . remaining with him (most of them switched sides Rostislav), . and went with them to meet his nephew, . and for Pereyaslavets sent another of his nephew Yaroslav Mstislavovitch,
. Vsevolod not want to trust their destiny battle, . as they loved to do the southern princes, . and Rostislav sent first to say: "Brother!" If you encourage senior squad, . then go to Rostov, . there and make it up, . you have rostovtsy and boyars, . but my brother and God has brought so Vladimirec with Pereyaslavets, . Suzdal and let them choose the two of us who want to ",
. But rostovtsy and nobles did not give his prince tolerated. Vsevolod, . a rejected, . I went to Yuriev, . here waited Pereyaslavets and told them, . that rostovtsy not want peace; Pereyaslavets answered: "You Mstislav good wishes, . and he is looking for your head, . so go, . Prince, . him, . but we will not spare the life of your offense, . God forbid we go back to anyone, if not from God will help us, . let, . stepping over our dead bodies, . take wives and our children's still nine days there, . how your brother died, . and they already want to shed blood ",
. At Yuryev field, . . for river Kzoy, . there was a fight-Vladimirec with their prince again won: their losses were negligible, . whereas the part of enemies of the boyars was killed, . others captured, . Mstislav he fled first to Rostov, . and then - in Novgorod; winners captured the village, . horses and cattle of their enemies,
. So Vladimir gained a final victory over Rostov.
But this victory did not put an end to the fight with his nephew, Vsevolod. Mstislav of Novgorod escaped to Ryazan to his son-Gleb Rostislavich and began to incite him to war against Vsevolod. That same autumn Hleb came to Moscow, and burned the whole city. Vsevolod I went to meet him, but when I was a Pereyaslavl, were Novgorod and told him: "Prince!" Do not go without Novgorodians, wait for them ". Always cautious, who liked to play it safe, Vsevolod of Novgorod agreed to wait, so with redoubled force to strike at the enemy, and returned. But he waited in vain Novgorodians: they did not come, instead of them came to the aid of two prince of Chernigov - Oleg and Vladimir Svyatoslavichy - yes Prince Pereyaslavl Russian Wladimir G.. Vsevolod made with them to Kolomna and here received the news that Hleb devastated with Polovtsy Vladimir Parish. Vsevolod returned, met Ryazan River Kolakshe and struck them a heavy defeat. The entire squad of Ryazan was slaughtered and captured. In captivity were Mstislav, Hleb and his son Roman. On this occasion there was a great joy in Vladimir. But anger at Rostislav was still very strong. Vladimirec themselves went to Voronezh, where Yaropolk Rostislavich caught and brought to Vladimir. Citizens demanded punishment Rostislav. Vsevolod as he could resist, but then he still told them to blind. Gleb died in prison, and the novel was released in Ryazan, after all promised to fulfill the will of the prince of Vladimir.
Thus ended the fight in the north in favor of the last of the sons of Yuri Dolgoruky. Vsevolod became as strong as his brother Andrew, and immediately took the path of his brother: he drove from his parish nephew Zhivago.
Having become an autocracy in Suzdal, Vsevolod quite mastered the techniques and policies with regard to Andrew Novgorod and Kiev. In 1180 the younger brother Roman Ryazan sent Vsevolod said: "Brother, our senior Roman robs us parish, in obedience to his father in law Svyatoslav (Vsevolodovicha Svyatoslav, Prince of Kiev. - K. P.), and you kiss the cross and the oath ". Vsevolod immediately opened the campaign, drove the Roman from Ryazan, and his son Svyatoslav, Gleb, in chains sent to Vladimir. Svyatoslav was quite annoyed by this turn things: he not only gave their time Vsevolod refuge in his exile, but every effort was assisted by his approval of the Vladimir throne. Incensed with anger, Svyatoslav went to campaign against Vladimir parish and met with Vsevolod near Pereyaslavl Zaleski River WleеL. Vsevolod chose for his troops advantageous position, . fenced mountains, . ruts, . but, . despite the request squads, . did not want to enter into a fierce battle with the southern shelves, . show enormous onslaught, . while northerners, . opposite, . were not too strong in the open field, . but is persistent in defense,
. Having stood for two weeks against the Vladimir, Svyatoslav went to the south, and not the battle begins. V. 1182 princes reconciled through the mediation of Rurik Rostislavich, and only then Gleb Svyatoslavich able to go to Kiev. Ryazan parish thus remained in the sphere of influence of the prince of Vladimir. In 1194 Svyatoslav wanted to go to the Ryazan princes, but did not dare to speak directly to a campaign, and sent first to Vsevolod - ask him for a permission. Vsevolod disagreed, and Svyatoslav was forced to cancel tour. In the same year he died. Vsevolod sent their husbands to Kiev, and those seated on the great reigning Rurik Rostislavich. Rurik Uryadov with all the neighboring princes, and his son-Roman Mstislavich Volyns'ke gave five best cities: Torchesk, Trepol, Korsun, Bohuslav and Konev, lying on the River Ros. Such a close friendship between Kiev and Galich prince Vsevolod seemed dangerous. Like Andrew, . He tried every effort to foment discord between the southern princes and sent a message to Rurik: "You called me elders in his tribe, Vladimirova, now you got in Kiev, . but I did not give any part in the Russian land, . distributed to other, . younger brother, well, if I'm in it no part, . how are you me want: someone gave it some, . so her and keep an eye, look, . how you detain her with him, . but I do not need ",
. Rurik sent to Roman and begged him back porosskie City. Get what we want, Vsevolod immediately gave Torchesk son Rurik Rostislav. The calculation was correct, . For when the Roman learned, . that Torchesk taken from him and passed through the hands of Vsevolod Rurik is the son, . then began to send complaints to the test, . Confident, . that he deliberately sgovorildya Vsevolod and snatched his parish for only, . to donate it to his son,
. Since that time, between Kiev and Galich began feuds, grew into a bloody war. Vsevolod supported it Rurik, but more in words than in deeds. In 1196 he was made an offensive movement against Yaroslav Vsevolodovich Chernigov, but made peace with him at the first opportunity, leaving Rurik one to beat off the enemy. Behavior Vsevolod greatly annoyed Rurik, who snatched his porosskie city and the far right with his own thoughts, and Vsevolod started a relationship with Roman, who acknowledged his father.
In 1202, persuaded a Roman, Vsevolod gave Kiev Ingvar Yaroslavovich Lutsky. Exiled from Kiev Rurik had tried to bring him back next year, but was again defeated by Roman and was forced to kiss the cross of the Grand Prince Vsevolod and his children, that is, to abandon seniority in the genus, and the death of Vsevolod. So the efforts of two marginal princes - Galich and Vladimir - Kiev was completely humbled and bowed down before the new capitals.
Later Rurik again received from the hands of Kiev Vsevolod, and later Vsevolod planted here Rostislav Rurikovich (in 1203) and Vsevolod the Red Svyatoslavich (in 1210).
But if the distant Kiev Vsevolod guided more by skillful diplomacy, the Ryazan case, it intervened directly. In 1186, he supported and Vsevolod, Svyatoslav Glebovich against their older brothers, and in 1187 once again exposed the Ryazan district strongest ruin. For the next twenty years is fully subordinated Vsevolod. In 1207, when it became reported that the Ryazan princes conspired with Chernigov, Vsevolod told to grab them all and in fetters to take in Vladimir, and he and his sons went to Pronsk, after a three-week siege, he took it and went from there to the Ryazan. Ryazan sent his army to meet Vladimirsky Bishop Arseny, who begged not to ruin the city Vsevolod. Vsevolod agreed, but demanded that Ryazan was sent to him all the remaining princes and princesses, and in 1208 sent him to the reign of his son Yaroslav. Ryazan not lived peacefully with the new prince, Vsevolod then again went to them, burned the city and residents were imprisoned for various castles.
Equally formidable was Vsevolod to Novgorod the Great. In 1178 he went to war in the Novgorod district, anger at the people of Novgorod, because they did not help him in his war against the Gleb of Ryazan, burned Torzhok and Portage Ladies with big booty and returned to the Vladimir. In 1187, during the war with Sviatoslav Vsevolodovich Vsevolod again appeared at Torzhok, took and burned the town, and all torzhan together with their princes Yaropolk Rostislavich led to full. Then drove away Novgorod, Vladimir Svyatoslav of Chernigov, and doing the will of Vsevolod, took on the reign of Yaroslav Vladimirovich. In 1195 Novgorod Yaroslav attempted to drive, but he stayed in Torzhok and two years fought against the citizens. In 1197 both sides came to Vladimir tolerate, and Novgorod Yaroslav took back all over his will. Since that time, Vsevolod was to dispose of Novgorod, how to control it Monomakh. In 1199 he sent Yaroslav in Novgorod and put his son Svyatoslav, and then his will gave the city a new archbishop Mitrofan. Despotism Vsevolod lasted until 1211. All these years, it reigned in Novgorod, one of his son, then another. Finally Novgorod did not stand and called on the principality of Toropets Mstislav Mstislavovitch swashbuckling. The elderly Vsevolod was forced to admit that coup. Shortly before his death, according to the chronicler, Vsevolod became weak, and when it came time, passed away quietly and silently.
All the monarchs of the world. Russia. 600 brief biographies. Konstantin Ryzhov. Moscow, 1999.
Vsevolod the Big Nest (1154 - 1212) - led. Prince of Vladimir from 1176. Son of Yuri Dolgoruky. After his father about. 1161 was exiled to a Greek mother and brothers Andrew Bogolyubsky. He lived in the Byzantine Empire, but soon returned to Russia. In 1175 in. became the prince of Rostov, after his brother Michael took power in the North-East. Russia. After the death of Michael in 1176 in. inherited Velikoknyazheskaya power and through a series of victorious campaigns at the Ryazan, Volga Bulgaria has extended the limits of the Vladimir-Suzdal principality, extending its influence in Kiev, Chernigov, Galich. At B. continued to develop stone architecture, and Vladimir decorated Dmitrievsky and Nativity Cathedral, Vladimir Detinets etc.. Prince got his nickname for a large family (10 sons and 4 daughters). Power in. reflected in the "Lay", where it was said that he can spill the oars Volga and Don bale helmets.