Dmitry Donskoy( From the kind of grand dukes of Moscow)
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Biography Dmitry Donskoy
Dmitry Donskoy (knee Ruric 15)
From the kind of Moscow led. kn. The son of Ivan II of Moscow and Prince. Alexandra Ivanovna. Genus. October 12. 1350 g. Conducted. kn. Moscow in 1359 - 1389 he. Conducted. kn. Vladimir in 1363 - 1389 he. Kn. Novgorod in 1363 - 1389 he.
Wife: from 1366 g. Grand daughter. Dmitry Konstantinovich of Suzdal, Grand. kn. Evdokia (+ June 1, 1407).
19 May 1389, Mr..
In 1359, still very young, his father died Dmitri, Ivan II. It seemed that the early death of the Grand Duke will be disastrous for Moscow, as his young son could hardly bother the Horde on the label and deal with the claims of the other princes of the great reign. And indeed, when all the princes came to the Horde and lacked one of Moscow, the Khan gave Nevrus Velikoknyazheskaya Vladimir region Suzdal Prince Dmitry Konstantinovich. To consolidate the position mainly in Russia, Dmitry went to Vladimir. But Moscow is not thought to yield. Boyars it used to be nobles of the strongest of the princes, the princes of All Russia, would not descend to the lower stage and did everything possible to get a shortcut to their prince. Juvenile Dmitry went to the Horde. But there is a severe unrest, during which one Khan succeeds another, and it was impossible to do anything. Finally Horde divided between the two Khans: Abdul, whose name is strongest rules Temnik mother and Murid. Moscow boyars sent messengers to the last, and 'he gave the label their young prince. Then the boyars were put on horses all the three prince: Dmitri, Ivan and his brother, a cousin of Vladimir, and made them in 1363 against Dmitry Konstantinovich. The latter could not resist the Moscow Regiment, and Dmitri was the dignity of Great. But in the same year in Vladimir was the ambassador of Mamayev hordes of Khan Abdul, the label on the great reigning Vladimirsky. Dmytro has adopted and that the ambassador with the honor and held with gifts. This angered Murid, who, to avenge Moscow, sent to Prince Ivan Belozero new shortcut on Vladimir Dmitry of Suzdal. He was delighted, and sat for the second time in Vladimir, but spent only 12 days because Dmitri Ivanovich again went on, with his large army, expelled from Vladimir, Suzdal, reined in, devastated the neighborhood of the city and. Finally he took over his Prince his will, in the words of the chronicler. In fact, the same year, says the chronicler, Dmitry took his will, and of Prince Konstantin of Rostov, and Prince Ivan Fedorovich Starodubskaya and Dmitry Galitskogo expelled from their principalities.
In 1365, when Dmitry of Suzdal again brought out of the Horde shortcut to Vladimir, he refused all of their claims in favor of Moscow prince in order to help him cope with his younger brother. In 1366 Dmitry Dmitry Moscow issued for his daughter.
In all of these events, as, indeed, in the future, the personality of Dmitry appears to sources, unclear. In adolescence, when he could not act independently, the boyars had dealt in exactly the same spirit, in what would be led and adult prince. Chronicle, describing the death of Demetrius, saying that he had consulted all the boyars, and listen to them, that the nobles had been the prince, as he bequeathed to do, and their children. Because of this it is impossible to separate that from his actions properly belongs to him, and that - his boyars. Maybe Dmitry whole life was leading the other, and this may partially explain the contradictions in his life that catch your eye: a mixture of courage with indecision and cowardice with courage, intelligence with the breach of etiquette, straightforwardness with perfidy.
Of the other Russian princes of the land more dangerous for all of Moscow seemed to Michael, the son of Aleksandr Mikhailovich of Tver. He, of course, fed the racial hatred of the Moscow princes had at the same time, enterprising man, distinguished by a sharp temper and stubbornness. Having grand prince of Tver, Michael started a war against their relatives. Vasily Mikhailovich Kashinskij sought the help of Dmitry Ivanovich, and Michael - to his son-Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania. Since the internal strife of the Tver principality grew into a war between Moscow and Lithuania.
In 1367 Vasily Kashinskij with Moscow Regiment devastated Tver district. Michael fled to Lithuania and came back with the Lithuanian Regiment. At this time the princes made peace, new in 1368, Dmitry and Alexei Metropolitan to invite to his Moscow Prince Michael of arbitral tribunal. After this trial the prince of Tver was seized along with all the boyars and put in the conclusion, but then learned about the sudden arrival of three princes of the Horde. This frightened the enemies of the arrival of Michael, and they released him to freedom, forcing to abandon part of its inheritance. Michael went to Lithuania and persuaded Olgerd start a war with Dimitri.
In Moscow learned about the invasion Olgerd only when the Lithuanian prince was approaching with his army to the border with his brother Kд?stutis, nephew Vitold, various Lithuanian princes, Smolensk Ratiu and Mikhail of Tver. Princes, henchmen Dmitri, did not have time for his call to come to the defense of Moscow. Dmitriy could send against Olgerd a gate guard only regiment of the Muscovites, and kolomentsev dmitrovtsev under the command of its governor Dmitriy Minin. Nov. 21 at the river Trosne Lithuanians met Moscow guard regiment and smashed it: the princes, the magistrates and nobles all died. Learning that Dmitry did not have time to gather more troops and locked in Moscow, Algirdas quickly went to her. Dmitry ordered to burn, plant around the city, and himself with the Metropolitan, a cousin Vladimir Andreevich and with all people shut in their white-stone Kremlin was built the year before. Three times Algirdas tried to take the city, but success is not achieved, although terribly devastated neighborhood, had carried away captive countless people, drove with them all the cattle. For the first time in forty years Muscovy experienced enemy invasion. Dmitri had to yield to Michael Campus, and other captured part of the Tver inheritance.
But Dmitry did not want to admit defeat. The following year he sent to fight and rob the Smolensk land, in revenge for the participation in Smolyan ruined parish. Then Muscovites fought under the Bryansk, and in August 1370 Dmitri newly declared war on Michael and he led a strong army invaded his parish. Michael fled to Lithuania, and Dmitri took and Pozega teeth and Mikulin, as well as all the villages, which was able to get. A lot of people with their good and cattle were brought in Muscovy. Algirdas, busy fighting the crusaders, was able to respond to the attack only in December. On Christmas post he and his brother Kд?stutis, Michael and Svyatoslav of Smolensk went to Moscow and besieged it. Dmitry and this time shut up in the Kremlin and Vladimir stood in Przemysl. To his aid came to Ryazan and Pronskiy shelves. Algirdas to learn about these fees, frightened and begged for peace. But Dmitri instead of perpetual peace agreed to a truce only to St. Peter's Day. Michael also made peace with Moscow, but not for long. In the spring of 1371 he went to the Horde and returned to the label on the great Khan's reign and the Ambassador Saryhozhey. But soon Michael was convinced that Khan's labels have been in Russia the previous strength. Vladimirec not even let Michael in town. Saryhozha called Dmitry listen to Vladimir label, but Dmitry replied as follows: "On the label is not food, the great reign will not let you, and you, Ambassador Tsarev, a clear way". However, he sent gifts Saryhozhe. Saryhozha left Michael and went to Moscow. He took it with such honor and so richly endowed that he completely over to the side of Dmitry, persuaded him to go to Mama and promised to intercede for him. Dmitry decided to follow his advice and went in search of grace Mamaia. Metropolitan Alex followed him to the Oka and blessed in the way. Dmitry was able to win the favor Mamaia, because the ruler of the horde was merciful to those who gave him more. Dmitry brought to the Horde great gifts, yea, and set up Saryhozha Mamaia in favor of Dmitry. Moscow, despite the devastation inflicted Olgerd was still rich in comparison with other Russian lands: Fees Khan tribute to enrich its coffers. Dmitri not only was able to bribe Mamaia, or even bought for 10 000 rubles in silver Ivan, son Mikhailova, retained in the Horde for the debt, and took him to her as a hostage; in Moscow that the prince was at the metropolitan court to ransom. Dmitri received from Khan's label to rule, and, moreover Mamay he went on assignment and allowed to pay tribute to a lesser amount than before.
Returning to Russia, Dmitry in the same in 1371 sent the army against Ryazan. Oleg Ryazan was broken and barely managed to escape. In 1372 the war started again Tver. Michael, uniting with the Lithuanians fought Moscow's parish, and then inflicted a severe defeat Novgorod. In 1373 the third time in Moscow went Algirdas. This time Dmitry prepared to meet him at Lyubutska and broke a guard regiment of Lithuanian. All the army of Lithuanians alarmed -. elk, Algirdas he ran and stood over the steep and deep ravine, which did not allow enemies to battle. For many days, Lithuania and Muscovites were inactive against each other, finally made peace and went. Michael, no hope is to help Olgerd, yet he left his struggle with Moscow. It so happened that the people who came from Moscow, themselves. Incited his. In Moscow, died last tysyatsky Basil Velyaminov. Dmitry decided to abolish this. An old post, which is contrary to the authoritarian tendency of the princes. But the last tysyatskogo left his son Ivan, who is dissatisfied with the new order, in cahoots with him was a rich merchant Nekomat. They both escaped to Tver to Michael and began to convince him again to make a great reign. Michael instructed them to secure for him a new label in the Horde, and he went to Lithuania, trying to find all the same there support. From Lithuania Michael soon returned with some promise, but the July 14, 1375 Nekomat brought him a shortcut to a great reign, and Michael, not thinking for a long time, sent to declare war Dmitri. He had hoped to crush the forces of the Moscow prince Horde, and Lithuania, but cruelly deceived. Help did not come to him from the East, . nor from the west, . yet Dmitry met with all the force and moved to Voloka Lingerie, . which came to his princes: his father-Dmitry Konstantinovich of Suzdal with two brothers and a son, . cousin wash Vladimir Serpukhov, . Three princes of Rostov, . Prince of Smolensk, . Two princes of Yaroslavl, . Princes Belozersky, . Kashinskij, . Molozhsky, . Starodub, . Bryansk, . Novosilsky, . Obolensky Torussky,
. All these princes of Voloka moved to Tver, and began to fight, took Mikulin, poplenili and burnt the surrounding space, finally, laid siege to Tver, where locked himself Prince Michael. The defenders fought hard, but some progress could not bring benefits to Michael: it was the parish shall be utterly emptied, city Zubtsov, Belgorod and town taken. He was waiting for assistance from Lithuania and from the Khan. Lithuanian regiments arrived, but hearing what innumerable army stands at Tver, frightened and turned back. Then Michael lost his last hope and sought peace.
Terms of this world come to us. Independent Grand Prince of Tver undertook to consider himself the younger brother of Dmitri. He pledged to participate in the Moscow campaign, or send his regiments against the enemies of Moscow. Michael undertook not to seek any of the great reign, nor Novgorod. Kashin principality became independent in relation to Tver. Michael is also committed to participate in the wars with the Tartars.
The pacification Prince of Tver greatly embittered Mamaia. He saw it as an obvious weakening of their power. His latest label given to Michael, who was raised Russian into anything. Since that time between Moscow and the Horde began open hostility, but it came long before the decisive clash. First Tatar ratification in retaliation for the campaign devastated Tver and Nizhniy Novgorod Novosilsky land. After that in 1377 the Tatar prince Arapsha of Mamai Horde made another attack on the Nizhny Novgorod region. Connected Suzdal and Moscow's men on their own negligence was defeated on the river drunk, and Lower was captured and ransacked. Next 1378 Tatars burned again Nizhny Novgorod. Hence Mamay sent Prince Begichev with a large army to Moscow. But Dmitry learned about the approach of the enemy, gathered strength and made for the Oka in Ryazan, where he met with Begichev riverside Vozhi. August 11, in the evening, there was a fight. Tatars crossed the river and with cries rushed on the Russian troops, who bravely met them. On the one hand struck them Prince Pronskiy Daniel, on the other - Moscow Okolnichy Timothy, while he Dmitri struck them in the center. The Tartars did not survive, threw down their spears and ran across the river, and plenty of them drowned and were slain. It is known that Vozhskoe defeat resulted in Mamaia rage, and he vowed not to rest until until revenge Dmitry. But, realizing that for the conquest of Russia need to repeat the invasion of Batu, mother started carefully prepare a new campaign. In many Tatars, who had gathered under his banner, he hired Genoese, Circassians, jars and other peoples. In the summer of 1380 Mamay moved their camp across the Volga, and began to roam in the mouth of Voronezh. Jagiello, Duke of Lithuania, entered into an alliance with him and promised to connect with the Tartars September 1. Learning of this, Dmitri began immediately to gather the troops, sent for help from an assistant to the princes - Rostov, Yaroslavl, Belozersky. Of all the Russian princes are not united with him one Oleg Ryazan, who fear for their region hastened to ally with Mamma.
Dmitry appointed its shelves gathering in Kolomna to 15 August and forward to the steppe sent guards, so they informed him of the motion Mamaia. Before the performance of Moscow Dmitry went to the Trinity Monastery of St.. Sergey Radonezhsky. Sergius blessed Dmitry on the war, promising victory, albeit with a strong bloodshed.
From Sergey Dmitriev went to Kolomna, which has gathered unprecedented in Russia's Men - 150 000. The news of the heavily armed Muscovite prince must be reached Mamaia, and he tried to end the first case the world. After he came to Kolomna, demanding tribute, which great princes were sent when Uzbeks and Jani Beg, but Dmitry rejected this, agreeing to pay only a tribute to what has been determined between him and mother in their last meeting in the Horde.
August 20 Dmitry made of Kolomna, and passing the border of his principality, stood on the Oka River at the mouth of the blade, aware of the enemy's movements. Here it joined with cousin. Vladimir Serpukhov, went past the Moscow Regiment. Then, seeing all the forces in the collection, Dmitry ordered to cross the Oka. September 6th army reached the Don. Here princes took counsel, and opinion is divided. Some said: "Go, Prince, the Don!" Others objected: "Do not go, because many enemies, not some Tartars, but also Lithuania and Ryazan". Dmitry took the first view and ordered the causeway bridges and fords search. On the night of 7 September, the army began crossing the Don. On the morning of Sept. 8 at sunrise was a thick fog, and when lit up at three o'clock, the Russian troops have already been built across the Don, at the mouth of Nepryadva. O'clock in the twelfth Tatars began to appear, they went down the hill to the wide Kulikovo field. Russian is also descended from the hill and watch the regiments began to fight. Dmitri himself and his warriors went ahead and pobivshis little, returned to the main forces to arrange the shelves. In the first hour of the beginning of decisive battle. This battle is not happened in Russia before: they say that blood was flowing like water in the space of ten miles, the horse could not walk on the carcasses, the warriors fell under the hooves of horses, from the suffocating closeness. Pedestrian Russian army was already skewed as hay, but the outcome of the battle decided. Vladimir, who hit in an ambush with a regiment of cavalry in the rear of the Tartars
. In "The Tale of Mamay", . source of the complex and contradictory, . with many obvious inventions and absurdities, . tells how, . Dzmitry donned the mantle of the prince at his favorite Michael Brenk, . himself in the clothes simple soldier involved in the crowd, . because I wanted to fight the Tartars, together with the warriors,
. We do not know whether to trust this news, but really, Dmitry, did not seem to head battle, it went like itself, and all the important decisions were taken by Vladimir Andreevich and voivod Bobrokom. After the battle, Vladimir ordered the trumpets and collect all the surviving warriors. Not only Dmitri. Vladimir began to ask: Does anyone not seen it? Some said, . they saw he was severely wounded, . and therefore must seek him among the corpses of others - that have seen, . he fought off four Tatars and escaped, . but do not know, . After that happened to him, one announced, . he saw, . the Grand Duke, . wounded, . walk back from the battlefield,
. Vladimir began with tears to beg, so that all were looking for the Grand Duke, promised rich rewards to those who find it. Army dispersed across the field, found a pet Dmitriev, Michael Brenk, finally, two warriors, branching off to the side, found the Grand Duke, barely breathing, under the branches of recently felled tree. Dmitry barely recovered, hardly recognize who is talking to him and about, his armor was all broken, but the body was not a serious wound.
On the occasion of the victory, says the chronicler, in Russia was the great joy, but there was also a great sadness over corpses on the Don; fail completely all the earth Russian commanders, and servants, and every army, and this was a great fear throughout the Russian land. This scarcity has Tatars still short-term triumph over Kulikovskii winners.
Mamay, returning to the Horde, gathered again a large army, in order to go to Moscow prince, but was stopped by another enemy: he was attacked zayaitsky Tokhtamysh Khan, a descendant of Genghis Khan. On the banks of the Kalka Mamay was defeated, and fled to the Crimea, and died there. Tokhtamysh have mastered the Golden Horde, was sent to Moscow and other Russian princes ambassadors to inform them of his reign. The princes took the ambassadors with honor and sent their ambassadors to the Horde with gifts for the new Khan. In 1381 Tokhtamysh sent to Dmitry Ambassador Ahkozyu, . which was called in the chronicles prince, . with seven hundred Tatars, but Dhkozya, . traveled to Nizhny Novgorod, . has returned, . not daring to go to Moscow, he was sent there a few people from their Tatar, . but they did not dare to enter Moscow,
. Tokhtamysh decided to disperse this fear, which attacked the Tatars assimilated. In 1382 he suddenly with a great army crossed the Volga and went to Moscow, observing great caution, so that in the Russian land that is not learned of his campaign
. When the news of the Tatar invasion yet reached Dmitry, . he wanted to go to meet them, . but its domain, . terribly impoverished nation after Kulikovsky slaughter, . could not put a sufficient number of troops, . and Dmitry went first to Pereyaslavl, . and then to Kostroma collect shelves,
. Here he received the news that Moscow was taken. However, Tokhtamysh not feel confident and then. Learning that Dmitry collects shelves in Kostroma and Vladimir is a great force in the drag, he hurriedly went back to the steppe. Dmitri returned to the ravaged city and at his own expense buried all the dead - 24 000.
Taking advantage of the calamity of Moscow, Mikhail of Tver immediately went to the Horde to find a great reign. But in 1383, arrived in Moscow, Ambassador of Tokhtamysh with good speeches and an award. For these kind of speech should have to pay dearly. In 1384 began the heavy levies to pay tribute to Khan. Each village were given half a ruble, and the city to pay in gold.
At the same time, Dmitry wanted to settle scores with Oleg Ryazan, which has twice been an ally of the Tartars. Also in 1382 Moscow's army devastated the Ryazan district. In 1385 Oleg suddenly attacked Kolomna, took and plundered its. Muscovite army sent against him, defeated. With Abbot Sergey Dmitriev concluded with Oleg world.
Tartar devastation and the obligation to pay a heavy tribute to the treasury brought the Grand Duke to poverty. Perhaps this is caused by Dmitry seek new sources of income. Like its predecessors, Dmitry drew attention to the rich Novgorod. Just at this time cleared Novgorod ushkuyniki. This led to a declaration of war. In December 1386, gathering a large army, Dmitry moved to Novgorod, burning and devastating everything in its path. In early January 1387 the Moscow army was not far from Novgorod. Frightened townspeople begged Dmitri did not start the siege and agreed to pay 8000 rubles, and in addition, agreed to pay annually to the black people to file a special ( "black pine forest") in favor of Grand Duke.
This was the last act of Dmitry, all of which fell on the reign of a very tumultuous and difficult period. Dmitry died early - in 1389, only 39 years old. Meanwhile, following the Life of, he was strong, tall, broad-shouldered, and even Georgia - "fraught п¦п¦п¦я-п+пT and tyazhek him exceedingly," had a black beard and hair, as well as a wonderful view. Same Life reports that Dmitri had an aversion to amusements, distinguished piety, gentleness and chastity. Books he did not like to read, but spiritual had in his heart. Buried in the Archangel Cathedral in Moscow.
All the monarchs of the world. Russia. 600 brief biographies. Konstantin Ryzhov. Moscow, 1999.
Dmitry Donskoy (12.10.1350 - 19.05.1389 +)
Ivan II (1326-1359 +), Alexandra;
(cm. genealogical table)
. Children: Evdokia (7.07.1407 +), daughter of Dmitry Konstantinovich =>
. Vasili I (1371-1425 +);
. Yuri (1373-1434 +);
. Simeon (? -1379 +);
. Daniel (1377-1389);
. Ivan (1380-1393 +);
. Andrew Mozhajskij (1382-1432 +);
. Peter (1385-1428 +), book
. Dmitrovsky, Uglich;
In his will of his father received Dmitrov, Uglich, several villages; Uglich in 1405, Mr.. moved, under the contract, the Grand Duke Vasily. During the attacks on the Pskov and Novgorod in 1406, Mr.. Lithuanians and Germans, Peter was sent to Novgorod from the army. In 1408, during the attack Yedigei on Russian soil, Peter was on the Grand Duke to defend Moscow. In 1410, Mr.. He unsuccessfully fought near the village Lyskova sons, Boris Konstantinovich run in the Nizhny Novgorod, with the Prince of Bulgaria, zhukotinskimi and Mordov. In his spiritual Vasily instructed his wife and son Vitold and brothers Andrew and Peter. Wife (since 1406) - Efrosinia. He died childless;
Constantine (15.05.1389-1433), Prince. Uglich;
Anna (in monasticism - Anastasia), wife beats. Duke of Lithuania, Yuri Patrikeevicha;
Sophia, wife of Theodore, son of Grand Prince Oleg of Ryazan (since 1387);
Maria (1399 +), with 1394 g. wife of Simeon of Polotsk, kn. Lithuanian;
Anastasia, from 1397 the wife of Ivan Vsevolodovicha Kholmsk;
Conducted. Prince of Moscow (1359-1389),
Conducted. Prince Vladimir (1362-1389);
When it was built in 1367 white-stone Kremlin in Moscow. Headed the armed struggle of the Russian people against the Mongol-Tatars, led them to defeat in the battle on the river. Vozha River (1378).
In the Kulikov battle in 1380 (upper reaches of the Don) showed outstanding leadership talent, for which he was nicknamed Don.
In his reign Moscow established its leadership position in the Russian lands. Dmitry Donskoy for the first time gave a great reign of Basil I without the approval of the Golden Horde, which exacerbated the internecine struggle.
Canonized Russian Orthodox Church.
Literary (chronicles and hagiographical) tradition has tried to embody the very image of Demetrios only positive traits - a devout, exemplary Christian and a hero. Now easier to evaluate the significance surrounding Dimitri environment rather than his personal political role. In the history of unification and unity of forces around the Great Principality of Moscow Center Demetrius prominently. Under the triple threat: the Golden Horde, quickly uniting Russian-Lithuanian Power Olgerd and, finally, the internal civil wars - had to fight for an independent statehood.
Tools to Fight kopilis preceding generations. The death of Grand Prince Ivan Ivanovich, a Moscow prince's family were all very young: Demetrius, his brother John and his cousin Vladimir Andreevich. Almost equally endowed with all three of them were the spiritual of the deceased, but Ivan in 1364, Mr.. died, and he proceeded to put on his Demetrius
. Soul of the remainder of Ivan Ivanovich government was Metropolitan Alexy, . man remarkable political intelligence and tact, . possessing a strong character and knowing how to use their authority for the idea - isolation of the north-eastern Russia and the rule of Moscow,
Confusion in the Horde after the death of Berdibek (1359) explains the initial failure of the candidates for the Grand Duke Dimitri table, given away in the Horde Dmitri Konstantinovich of Suzdal. After waiting for an opportune moment, Moscow has made in 1362, Mr.. shortcut to a great reign for Demetrius "for paternal and Dziedzina, thus summing up the fundamental basis for their claims. Were designed and attitudes towards Dimitri's cousin, who pledged to "keep under Dimitri great reigning honestly and menacing," "want it all good" and "have it in his father's place".
Dimitri Konstantinovich, after two attempts to resist, was put down and bound by a treaty in 1363. At the same time suffered and his allies, Prince Galitsky (Galich Merskogo) and Starodub, with whom are attached to Moscow. Soon (1365) himself Dimitri K. drawn to Moscow for help against his brother, Boris, possessors Nizhny Novgorod. When no displacement of the Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod bishop, . Boris nor an invitation to the court through Sergius Radonezhsky, . or closure of all churches of Nizhny Novgorod in the same on behalf of Metropolitan Sergius, . had no effect on Boris, . was started up in the course of the force, . and Dimitri Konstantinovich installed in the Lower,
. Marriage Dimitri with his daughter, secured their friendship (1366). What impact has the alliance with Moscow Nizhny Novgorod, evident from the fact that it was Moscow demands satisfaction Novgorodians for Ushkuiniks robbery perpetrated by merchants in the Lower and the Volga (1367).
Involve Moscow in their local affairs and the prince of Tver, do not get along because of the inheritance of escheat (1367). The judge was appointed Bishop of Tver, who decided in favor of Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich of Tver, but the decision was overturned, the lord accused of unjust court. Contemporaries understood the matter so that Demetrius leads "in their will" of all Russian princes, and who do not obey him, to those beginning "posyagati". Moscow's policy is very strong and does not discriminate means.
In 1368, Mr.. Demetrios and Metropolitan of "flattery" invited to Moscow, Mikhail Aleksandrovich (before it was before to help Olgerd), where it is judged quarrels with his uncle, Tver, and put in conclusion. Only the arrival of Horde Ambassadors disapprovingly otnesshihsya to such reprisals, forced Demetrius to let Michael in Tver, a sworn enemy of Moscow policy. The ambassadors left, and right now, Moscow is sending a strong army of humble Prince of Tver. Michael again appealed for help to (his son-) Algirdas, . and this time the Moscow army was divided by the river Trostne (in this Ruza district of the Moscow region.) Lithuanian Moscow stood by the siege only just re (1367) Building stone walls,
. "This evil and the Tatars were" chronicles the story ends on the devastation of the Lithuanian raid. I had to put up with the prince of Tver and the return of his seized earlier fortress.
Moscow political theory of Metropolitan Alexy did not allow concessions. In the ecclesiastical sphere, she expressed so dramatically that caused collective complaints of Lithuania, Tver and other princes to the Patriarch of Constantinople (Alex is not called a pastor of Western Orthodox Church, and the wolf). Outside the church, she has concentrated all his attention on the western border. In the north-west of enmity Novgorod and Pskov, threatening to bow in the direction of Lithuania's position the Germans had to find out because of the danger of Lithuania.
In 1368, Mr.. sent ambassador to Dorpat, Vladimir - in Pskov; unable to reconcile the Pskov and Novgorod at the joint successful campaign against the Germans. Lithuanians can move to Moscow and through Smolensk and Bryansk in: take the devastation of the Smolensk borderland and armed attack on the Bryansk (1370). In August 1370, Mr.. Demetrius was the whole earth Tverskaya defeat and returned to Moscow with a big booty. Algirdas went to Moscow, but after an unsuccessful siege entered its world, which declined from an alliance with the Prince of Tver.
In the next 1,371 g. Michael tried to rely on the Horde, whence he returned to the label on the great reign and Ambassador Saryhozhey. Moscow's policy does not take much to invite Saryhozhu in Moscow, and so its nothing, that the soil in the Horde was already prepared, when there was Demetrius, along with his son Michael, Ivan, and uchtil good of the Horde bosses. Of the Horde Demetrius was released "with much honor and with an award", he had been there and Michael's son, Ivan, for which later Demetrius took with his father 10000 rubles.
In alliance with the Horde Demetrius was not afraid of a new attempt to raise him Michael Olgerd (1373). Demetrius went to meet the Lithuanian Regiment, defeated them in the city Lyubutske and forced to retreat Olgerd.
In the years 1374-1375 have been Demetrios razmire with mother, who did not fail to take advantage of Tver. There were dissatisfied and in Moscow itself: the son had just died tysyatskogo Moscow Vasily Sonya Ivan, . dissatisfied with the destruction of dignity, . which counted, . departed from Dimitri with adherents in Tver and began to plead in the Horde of the great reign for Michael,
In 1375 the label on the great reign was brought to Tver, and Michael opened hostilities. Around Dimitri gathered an unprecedented number of allies: Prince of Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod, . Serpukhov, . Gorodetsky, . Rostov, . Yaroslavl, . Belozersky, . Kashinskij, . Starodub, . Tarusa, . Novosilsky, . Obolensky, . Smolensk, . Bryansk and Novgorod, . permanent enemies Tver,
. Neither Ordynskaya, nor Lithuanian assistance is not caught up, and Michael, seeing his exhaustion, Inasmuch as the entire Russian land vozsta at him, "asked the peace. Treaty of 1375, Mr.. Prince of Tver is reduced to the status of "younger brother" the Grand Duke, . forever renounce claims to Moscow, . grand principality of Vladimir and Novgorod, . committed to helping Demetrius against the Tatars and Lithuania and open a free passage of goods Novgorod on their land,
In 1376, Dimitri makes the Volga Bulgars take tamozhnikov Grand Duke, by introducing an old shopping center on the Volga in the economic dialogue with the Russian trading world.
In 1377 die Algirdas, Lithuania and entering a period of internal unrest, Moscow not only has to guard western neighbor, but also able to use the Lithuanian forces (1378 g. Andrei of Polotsk and 1379 g. Dmitry Olgerdovich dissatisfied Jagiello, "with love" have been taken Dimitri). Moscow politicians are now able to focus all their attention on the Tatar south-east, which has long been a little authority, but still troublesome neighbor.
Tatar princes and their hordes looking for prey in a sudden raid and a random robbery. With disorganization of border protection, such raids are politically friendly, kept in constant anxiety local Russian population. Victory Moscow troops in Vozha River (near Ryazan), above the host, sent to Moscow Mamaev, was first won by the Tatars in the open field (1378).
To keep in subjection Profitable ulus, the Horde was necessary to give an impressive fight back, but to ensure success - to win over Lithuania. News of the preparations of Mamaia to more like Russ came to Moscow in August 1380, one had to rush to meet the enemy abroad, northeast of settlement (and therefore in a hike involved just 5 of Princes).
Dimitri met the Tatars at the mouth of the river Nepryadva (a tributary of the Don) 8 September, when the Lithuanians with Jagiello were still in Odoeve. Mamay stricken, fled from the field Kulikova (cm. Kulikovo), the camp went Tatar Russian. Demetrius was personally involved in the battle and was found unconscious on the field (but not injured).
We can not believe the customary excessive numbers of participants of this battle (hundreds of thousands), but the Russian losses were nevertheless very heavy (commemoration of those killed so far accomplished in the Dmitrov Saturday, between 18 and 26 October st.stilya). This victory, as Vozhskaya is important because the second showed the Russian society to defeat such a terrible first enemy, she cemented a reputation prince of Moscow selfless defender and head north-eastern Russia.
Mamay died in the south in a collision with Tokhtamysh, which has now become the khan of the Golden Horde. Its ambassador, who came with a small detachment to call Dimitri to the new Khan, in 1381, could not get to Moscow without the risk of public disturbance. Tokhtamysh while he himself went to Moscow. Demetrius assembled princes to the council on a joint defense, but ran into "neodinochestvo" and unwillingness to help, so he did not dare to speak against one Tokhtamish, moved with his family from Moscow and took refuge in Kostroma. In August 1382 came to Moscow Tatars, and captured the city and looted. Many cities suffered the same fate. Tokhtamysh left, sparing only the Prince of Tver.
The following year, Demetrius had to "compete" in the Horde of the great reign, which is now busily Michael, it was left for Demetrios, but the Horde had been taken hostage his son Basil, and bail in 8000 rubles. In Vladimir appeared "fierce" Ambassador Adach. In 1384, Mr.. had to collect heavy tribute (from half a ruble from the village) with all the Russian land, and from Novgorod - black bor.
In 1385 it was necessary to demonstrate an unprecedented leniency towards the Princes of Ryazan, Kolomna reshivshemusya to attack and defeat the forces of the Moscow prince. Novgorodians opened robberies along the Volga and Kama, and ceased to pay knyazhchiny. In 1386, Mr.. Demetrius has a large military demonstration under the walls of Novgorod to restore the credibility, take a black pine forest on the townships and 8000 rubles in Novgorod.
Ran (1388) Demetrius and the discontent of his cousin Vladimir, whose strength had to lead "in their will, forced to admit the political seniority eldest son, Demetrius, Basil. Dimitri had to reconcile this with Vladimir two months before his death: he died on May 19, 1389
. In the spiritual testament Demetrius blessed (first), the eldest son of Basil, his paternal great reigning ", at least it was newly available Demetrios, to the small princes of Moscow land lived in Moscow at the court of Grand Duke, and not its patrimony
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FROM RUSSIA TO THE ANCIENT EMPIRE ROSSIYSKOY
Dmitry Donskoy (1350-1389) - Prince Vlad and Moscow. Grand son. kn. Vlad. and Moscow. Ivan II of Moscow. In the early years when juvenile Dmitry human-headed in the Metropolitan Alexei. Based on the increased power of Moscow. Prince Island, support the serving of the boyars and the townspeople, Dmitry Donskoy overcame the resistance of opponents in the struggle waged. reign-suzd.-Nizhegorodnefteorgsintez., ryaz. and solid. Princes. His rights has taken a number of activities aimed at centralization of state. administration and military affairs, tried to subordinate the Church temporal power. When it was built 1-st in the North-East. Russ stone Kremlin in Moscow (1367). In 1368, Mr.. and 1370 g. Dmitry Donskoy troops repelled an attack on Moscow, the Lithuanians under the command of their Grand. kn. Olgerda. During the war with Tver (1368 -1375) Dmitry arranged subject to him and dependent portion. Princes to campaign against Tver and forced the lead. kn. solid. Mikhail Alexandrovich for recognition of his seniority in Russia and the alliance in the fight against the Golden Horde. In 1376, Mr.. Mosk. book-to assert its influence in the Volga-Kama Bulgaria, and 13 / 8 of his army defeated at Skornischevom led. kn. ryaz. Oleg Ivanovich. In the same year, Dr.. I. D. headed the armed struggle against the Tatars, on the river. Vozha army was defeated by an experienced captain Murzas Begichev. In 1380, Mr.. Dmitry Donskoy headed United rus. troops out to meet the hordes of Tat. Temnik Mamaia, heading to Russia. In the Kulikov battle that led to the complete defeat of the invaders, Dmitri showed outstanding polkovodch. talent, for which he was nicknamed by the people of the Don. During the defeat of Moscow Tokhtamysh Khan (1382), however, he was forced to flee from his capital. After the withdrawal of the Tatars immediately ortanizoval work to restore the city. In the reign of Dmitry Donskoy Moscow established its leadership position in the Russian. lands. In testament Dmitry handed conducted. reign of his eldest son Basil as 'my paternal', without the sanction of Khan.
To use material from the book.: Boguslavsky, VV Burmina VV. Russia Rurik. Illustrated historical dictionary.
Dmitry Donskoy (1350, Moscow - 1389, ibid) - led. Prince sinks. and Vladimir. Genus. the family of Prince Ivan II of Moscow. Grandson Ivan Danilovich 1 Colitis. Not received sufficient education (and the books can not teach "), which was typical of the Middle Ages. Early began his political activities. The actual head of government after the death of Ivan II in 1359, Metropolitan Alex fought with the Suzdal prince, and 13-year-old D. nominally led the successful campaign. Between 1359 and 1361 D. went to the Horde, and in 1362 received the label on the lead. reign Vladimirsky. In 1367 when it was erected the first stone Kremlin. D. in 1368 repelled an attack by the Lithuanian prince Olgerd, in 1370 made the first independent military campaign, causing terrible devastation of the Tver principality. In the same year made peace with the newly recycled in the Moscow Lithuanian prince Olgerd sustaining Tver against Moscow. In 1371 defeated Ryazan army. In 1375 D. forced the Prince of Tver to recognize his seniority. In 1376 D. subdued the Volga Bulgars. Spend their lives in military campaigns, D, surrounded himself with talented commanders, among them were Prince Vladimir the Serpukhov and D.M. Bobrok-Volyn, and with them successfully, "Champions of the Earth Russian courage their derzhashe". D. was the first car wash. Prince, who led the struggle against the Tatars. In 1378 Russian. army under the leadership of Dr.. defeated the Tatar army on the river. Vozha River, and in 1380 he led a united Russian. troops and went against the Tatar Temnik Mom. A hundred kilometers to the southeast from Tula, where r.Nepryadva flows into the Don, on the Kulikovo field there was a fight in a swarm-D. displayed giving you the quality of the commander. Vladimir Andreevich and Bobrok-Volyn with the best soldiers he put in an ambush, while he stood in the front ranks of his army. Boyar M. Brenk donned armor D. and stood under his banner, to mislead the enemy. Brenk was killed, but the army of the D. fulfilled its task. Sam D. fought with the Tatars and four severely injured in battle ( "ulcerative bou byst п¦п¦п¦я-п+пT exceedingly"). He won a historic victory over the Tartars, proving that the combined forces of Russian. principalities can finally be rid of the dependence of the Golden Horde. For this victory D. earned the nickname Don. In 1382, after the defeat of Moscow Khan Tokhtamysh, D. organized reconstruction. Historian MN. Tikhomirov wrote: "The reign of Dmitry Donskoy should take time this recovery culture, leaving a long and memorable footprint. Through the activities of the D. Mosk. duchy became predominate among Russian. land. Although the Mongol-Tatar yoke was not reset, D. conveyed to his son Basil, his paternal ", without seeking the consent of the Golden Horde.
|OLESJA for Dmitry Donskoy
|MDA ......... and where the photo?