Dmitry Ivanovich( From the kind of grand dukes of Moscow)
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Biography Dmitry Ivanovich
Dmitri Ivanovich (1582-1591) - the last prince of the share in Russia, the son of Tsar Ivan the Terrible. His father gave him at birth in the lot, Mr.. Uglich, where he was sent to B. F. Godunov with his mother shortly after his death (1584) Ivan the Terrible. Killed Uglich. There are 2 versions of the reasons for his death:
1) killed on the orders of Godunov, who wanted to get rid of the pretender to the throne;
2) stabbed with a knife in a fit of epilepsy.
Incredible 3rd version that did not die prince, who allegedly managed to escape, but someone else had been used by the Polish magnates to the nomination of impostors, who facilitated the intervention of Poland to Russia in the early. XVII century.
To use material from the book.: Boguslavsky, VV Burmina VV. Russia Rurik. Illustrated historical dictionary
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. Assuming that Dmitry remained alive and, indeed, the rules in Moscow, and we are known by the name of the False Dmitry, then holds his next biography:
. Dmitry Ivanovich (knee 21)
. From the kind of Moscow led
. kn. Son of Ivan IV Vasilyevich the Terrible and Maria Feodorovna Nude. Genus. October 19. 1583. King of All Russia in 1605 - 1606 he.
J.: on May 8, 1606, Mr.. daughter Saydomirskogo governor Yuri Mnishek, Marina Mnishek.
+ 16 May 1606, Mr..
* * *
Grozny had their five wives, eight children, but, dying, leaving only two sons: Theodore idiot by his first wife Anastasia Romanov Dmitri, and little from the last - Maria Nude. The fate of both the heirs decided in the first days after the funeral of Ivan IV: Fedor, supported by a majority of boyars, was put to rule in Moscow, and Dmitry with his mother and uncles were exiled to live in Uglich.
Here disgraced prince spent his childhood. According to some chroniclers, he said, although he was still a child, showed a special sensitivity to ill-treatment, showed a stubborn temper, vindictive nature and even predisposition to cruelty. It was said that Dmitry eagerly watched the slaughtering of bulls and rams, and sometimes made his way to the kitchen to personally turn my neck a few chickens. One winter, . playing with peers, . Prince commanded to make a snow twenty human images and, . giving them the names of the Godunov and the other approximate boyars of his older brother, . with the cry: "Here, . you will, . I'll reign "- chopping their heads off,
. May 15, 1591 under mysterious circumstances, he was killed in Uglich.
His death has had a tremendous impression on. Contemporaries, has created many rumors, speculations and legends. There is a widespread opinion was that Dmitry was killed and was rescued by loyal people, but instead buried another boy. At all times, historians have to accept that a young man, appeared in Poland, ten years later, and pretending to be a son of Ivan the Terrible, could well be so. Course, . much more reason to consider him an impostor, . but in this case can not see in many of his actions undoubted inner conviction, . that he was the, . it claims to be .* Traces of his first detected in 1601 in Kiev,
. While no one knew neither his name nor the origin. He appeared in the form of a young monk, lost in the crowd of pious pilgrims, who flocked to the glory shall relics of the ancient city. He lived long enough in the possessions of the Prince of Ostrog - monastery in Dermanskom, and hence went to the city Goschu, threw off his monk's dress and began to study in the Arian Goschinskoy school in Latin and Polish. After some time it should not lose. Perhaps, just in these years, the applicant went to Zaporizhzhya Sich and gang Gaydamak Gerasimos Evangelic studied selfless cause. In 1603 he reappeared in Bragin, where he entered the service of Prince Adam Vyshnevetskoho. The old prince fell in love with the boy for smart and dashing. Respectful to the owner, he compassed his servants carried himself with dignity and did not allow a slightest familiarity. In addition, he was a man of a closed and secretive.
One young man dangerously ill, and demanded the confessor. Summoned to the sick man was Jesuit priest. After telling him of his sins, the patient asked the priest to bury him with honors, decent king's children. "Who am I, - he continued, - you know it from the papers, which are hidden in the headboard of my bed ... Do not show them to anyone, do not betray the secrets of the person to whom the Lord does not judged to live and to die decently of its high birth! "
Jesuit was not slow to inform the recognition of the mysterious prince's servants very Vyshnevetskoho. The prince, taking quietly cherished paper, learned from them that the servant was no less a person than Prince Dmitry of Uglich, saved from the hands of assassins sent Shchelkalov clerks and many other loyal nobles. From the same paper indicated that the innocent victim of malice Godunovs fallen priest's young son Istomin, adopted by the killers for Prince. Vishnevetsky, beside himself with amazement, along with the priests hurried to the bedside of a dying servant. Dmitri showed the prince a gold pectoral cross, . bejeweled, . wearing, . According to Prince, . his godfather Prince Ivan Mstislavskys, . as well as distinguishing features, . confirming his noble origins: a wart on his cheek, . birthmark higher right hand and then, . that one arm shorter than his other,
. Not knowing whether to believe his story or not, Vishnevetsky not stinted on treatment, and soon the doctors managed to raise Dmitry on legs. A little later, among the servants of Leo Sapieha was a defector from Moscow, some parsley, known in Poland under the name of Petrovsky, who in the old days if served in Uglich the person of Prince. He was taken to Bratin and wanted to arrange a candidate trap, presenting him the man under a different name. But he did not hesitate admitted Petrushka, and at the same time, it was found. The news of the Moscow prince, miraculously escaped from death quickly spread among neighboring landowners. At the same time the rumor of it reached Moscow and, it seems highly alarmed Godunov. At least, it began to immediately seek his extradition, and promised Vyshnevetskoho to make concessions on territorial disputes, if the impostor will be in his hands.
In late 1603 my brother Prince Adam, Constantin Vishnevetsky, Dmitri drove in Sambor to his father-in-Yuri Mnishek. Here, the prince was struck by the phenomenon it is still unknown: he saw the eldest daughter Mnishek Marianne, or Marina, which produced a passionate young man left an indelible impression. Marina in the highest degree possessed those qualities which gave the Polish woman in the society. She realized that she had a chance to perfect a way to arrange their own fate, set to work and soon captured the heart of Prince. Mnishek were zealous Roman Catholics, Latins adoption of Tsarevich more help, because it placed on the side of the clergy and especially the powerful Jesuits. Dmitry frantsianskim monks allowed to draw themselves in Catholicism.
At the end of March 1604 and Vishnevetsky Mnishek brought the prince in Cracow. Exterior seeker of the Moscow State did not speak in his favor: he was of average, or nearly poor growth, quite well built, had a round face, unpleasant, reddish hair, eyes dark blue, was somber, pensive, awkward. This description appearance Dmitri made the witness, similar to the best extant portrait: and here we see a very ugly person with a thoughtful, sad expression. Among other news, we know that Dmitri was very strong and easily bent horseshoes. Applicant was taken to the king, and he acknowledged his Muscovite prince, though not publicly, he appointed the annual maintenance of 40000 zlotys, but did not want to help him clear his army on his own behalf, and allowed the landowners to do so in private. For this limited assistance promised Dmitry, . on accession to the throne, . return to the Polish crown of Smolensk and Seversk land, . to permit to construct in their own state churches, . enter the Jesuits, . Sigismund assist in the acquisition of the Swedish crown and contribute to future connections with the Polish Muscovy,
. Sigismund to head the company Sandomir governor Yuri Mnishek. Mnishek triumphantly brought the prince in Sambor, where he offered his hand to Marina. Later he proved that was really fascinated by it and that not only the political calculation caused him to desire the marriage. The proposal was accepted, but the wedding postponed until the approval of the groom on the throne of Moscow. Mnishek collected for a future son-in-1600 people every riff-raff in the Polish dominions, but these people were many in the steppes of Muscovy in the Ukraine, therefore, expect strong support of the applicant before. Don Cossacks were sent to his army of 2000 people so the overall strength of Dmitry comprised 4000 people.
August 15 Dmitry opened the campaign, and in October of 16.04 years entered the Moscow State. Residents of the first border town Morawska, learning that goes with the king. Polish army, became restless and more from fear than good will, sent to Dmitry ambassadors with resignation and swore to him. The Cossacks, who always walked in front of the main forces approached the Chernigov and were met by gunshots. But then, learning that the Moravian surrendered, Chernigov entered into negotiations with the Cossacks and tied governor, had refused to surrender to Prince. Despite this, the Cossacks until the arrival of the main forces completely looted Posad. Dmitri asked to give his prey, threatening to lead them against the knighthood. Cossacks long scolded and pleaded, but were forced to return the booty, though not all.
Chernihiv surrendered, but did not give Novgorod Seversky, where he sat down voivod Peter Fedorovich Basmanov, a favorite Godunov. Basmanov repulsed an attack, not given to light the city, and Dmitri impatient, irritated by interference, and began to reproach the Poles: "I thought better of the Poles, - he said - but now I see that they are the same people as the other". The Poles would have had to leave him, as news came that voivod Prince Vasili Tripe-Mosalskiy passed Putivl, the most important city in the land of Seversk. Putivel example was followed by other fortified cities, and over 600 miles from west to east Dmitry already confessed the true prince. People saw this prince, . surrounded Poles, . but saw his zeal for the Orthodox faith: so, . he ordered to bring in Putivl of Kursk miraculous icon of the Virgin, . greeted her with honor, . put in their houses every day and prayed in front of her,
In December, arrives royal army led by Prince Fyodor Ivanovich Mstislavskys. December 18, both armies met near Novgorod Seversky. I Mstsislauye was up to 50 000 people, the prince is not more than 15 000. December 21 Dmitry emboldened his army speech that breathed full confidence in the rightness of his case, and opposed the king's army, which immediately cringed. Tsarist army, having lost 4000 people, fled, and only the inexperience in military Dmitry prevented him to sweep. Surveying the battlefield after the battle and seeing so many dead bodies on the Russian side, Dmitry crying.
Despite this victory, the candidate has experienced great difficulties. Mnishek under the pretext of the Diet was assembled in Poland, the Poles began to demand money from Dmitri. When Mnishek had left behind him moved most of the Polish chivalry. Dmitry went from one company to another, trying to persuade the Poles to stay, but met only insults. One Pole told him: "God grant that they put you on the count". Dmitry for it struck him in the teeth, but so antagonized a knighthood, the Poles pulled off his sable coat, and the Russian followers of Prince were then buy it. Dimitri From left only 1500 Poles, who instead chose Mnishek hetman Dvorzhitskogo. But this decline in the army was soon rewarded: in 12 000 Cossacks Little Russia, with whom the applicant stayed in Sevsk. January 21, 1605, he came out and gave the king's army at the battle Dobrynich, but in spite of the extraordinary bravery, was defeated by massive artillery fire in the king's army. Dmitry retreated to Putivl and locked the door. Seeing the small number of his troops, he wanted to go to Poland, but Russian, which is already tied up in their lot with him, did not allow him that. Soon, indeed, was to Putivl 4000 Don Cossacks, whom the prince sent to protect Kromah. Under this little town of king's troops were stationed throughout the spring. Dmitry continued to live in Putivl, which took a lot of time kind of a crowded city. At their lunch, he invited Russian and Polish, Orthodox priests and priests,) tried to reconcile with each other and those. He himself was very curious, read a lot and talked with the 'educated Poles, impressed by their neatness of their judgments, and Russian inspired respect to education and the shame of ignorance. "As soon with God's help I shall reign, . - He said, . - Now headmistress, . to me throughout the state have learned to read and write, . pawn University in Moscow, . I will send Russian in foreign lands, . but to myself I will invite scholars and foreigners who know that their example to encourage all Russian teach their children every science and art ",
. In April came the news of the death of Boris Godunov va reign of his son, and Fedor "The last I had no, popularity in the army. In May, the tsarist troops stationed Kromy, pledging allegiance to Dmitry. The prince arrived on May 24 to Crom m headed surrendered troops moved to Orel, where he met with delegates from the entire bow Ryazan. Dmitri sent to Moscow from the army of Prince Vasily Golitsyn, and went to wake. From the Eagle he arrived in Tula. Here he learned that the people in revolt deposed Tsar Fedor. In each village, the people of Prince met with bread and salt. In Tula Dmitri worked as a sovereign state affairs: sent letters in which he informed his arrival, was a form of oath, spoke British Ambassador Smith. Among these activities came an embassy from Moscow boyars, led by three brothers Shuiskys and Fyodor Ivanovich Mstislavskys. Dmitri took them to dry for the first time his comments that the Cossacks and the common people warned them to be faithful. Boyar sworn ryazansky Archbishop Ignatius, whom Dmitri other place on the patriarch Job. Then the prince walked slowly to Moscow. He never stopped talking to people, asked him about life and promised benefits. In Serpukhov, on the banks of the Oka, waiting for him brought from Moscow's huge tent, richly decorated, which could put several hundred. Along with the tent arrived from Moscow, the royal kitchen, and many workers. In this tent Dmitri gave the first feast, and entertained the boyars, Okolnichy and duma clerks. Serpukhov Dmitry already rode in a rich coach, accompanied by distinguished personages, and stopped in the village of Kolomna. Here, in a lengthy meadow bordering the Moscow River, it was expecting a new tent. Priests, guests, townsmen and peasants crowds come to worship. Dmitry gently took bread and salt from the poor and said: "I'm not the king of your will, and the father".
Finally, June 20, 1605 Prince rode triumphantly into the capital with joyous exclamations countless people, gathered in Moscow from all sides. Having entered the Kremlin, Dmitri prayed, first in the Assumption Cathedral, and then in Archangel, where, to enclose the tomb of Ivan the Terrible, cried so much that no one could doubt - it was a true son of Ivan. Then entered the palace, Dmitri received congratulations from housewarming. Moscow bells ringing incessantly all day.
Approximate hurry up with the royal wedding, but before Dmitri sent his mother, nun Marfa. After a few days in Moscow, was discovered a plot against Dmitry. Merchant Fedor Konev and a few traders who have shown that the prince SHUISKI gave them instructions to arm the people against the king, saying that he does not Dmitri, and Grisha tow, that he wants to destroy the church and to eradicate the faith. Shuya first seized. But Dmitry himself refused to judge him, and gave to solve the case to the Zemsky Sobor. For him, except the clergy and members of the Duma, were invited townspeople. According to some foreign Izvestia Dmitry himself was at the council, disputed Shuisky and incriminate him of libel, and spoke with such skill and intelligence that the entire cathedral was listed in amazement and thought worthy of death, Shuya. June 25 should have him put to death and has brought to the scaffold, when a messenger rode up with the announcement of pardon. Dmitry replaced penalty referring to Vyatka. Even before June 24, was elevated to the patriarchate of Ryazan Archbishop Ignatius.
July 18, arrived from exile queen nun Marfa. Dmitry met her in the village of Taininskoye with innumerable concourse. When the carriage in which sat a queen stopped, Dmitry quickly jumped from his horse. Martha turned away the curtain closes the window of the carriage. Dmitry rushed to her in his arms. Both wept. Several minutes passed in the mind of the people. Then the king as far as Moscow was walking beside the carriage. Martha rode with the ringing of bells and rejoicing of the people: while no one doubted that the throne of Moscow real prince, such a meeting could only be a rendezvous with the mother of a son.
July 30 Dmitri married the king's crown from Patriarch Ignatius. After that showered mercy. Were returned from exile, all disgraced former reign. Filaret Romanov was elevated to Metropolitan of Rostov. Forgiven and returned to Moscow SHUISKI brothers (they did not even manage to get to Vyatka). They returned to the nobles and all the old estates. Also, receive forgiveness and all Godunov. "There are two ways to rule - once said Dmitry - charity and generosity or severity and executions, and I chose the first way, I made a vow to God not to shed the blood of subjects and perform it". When someone wanting to pander to Dmitri, spoke ill of Boris, the king observed: "You bowed to him when he was alive, but now that he's dead, you hulite it. Another would be someone talking about him, not you, when they themselves chose him ". All the serving was doubled content; landlords have doubled their land holdings, all proceedings were declared free, all officials have been doubled and the content is strictly forbidden to take the promises and gifts. In order for the collection of taxes nebylo abuse, lands granted by the delivery of tribute in Moscow. Dmitry forbade giving hereditary bondage, peasants were allowed to depart from the landlords, if they do not feed them in time of famine. Also destroyed were all sorts of obstacles to leave the state, as well as to move inside. "I do not want to embarrass anyone, - said Dmitry, - let my possessions are all free. I enrichment their State free trade ".
Not a day passed in which a king was not present in the Duma. Sometimes, listening to the long-term sterile disputes duma people about business, he laughed and said: "So many hours you have to reason and to no avail! - And in a minute to everyone's surprise deal with the most complicated case. He loved and knew how to speak, as all literate in those days loved to cite examples from the history of different peoples, telling his own life and cases. On Wednesdays and Saturdays, he received petitions and all provided an opportunity to explain to him about his business. Contrary to the custom of former kings, Dmitry, lunch, strolled through the city, went to different workshops, talked with artists, talked with colliding on the streets. Without help, jumped on a hot horse, demonstrating the art of riding. He loved hunting and - personally went to the bears and amazed the subjects of his agility. Like Terrible Dmitry liked to talk about religion. But his speeches were new to Moscow and sounded tempting. "We - he said the spiritual and lay people - only some rituals, and meaning of their sheltered. You supply only the piety that keep fasts, and have no conception of the nature of faith ... Why do you despise infidels? What is the Latin, the Lutheran faith? All the same Christian, as Greek. And they believe in Christ ". When he spoke of the seven councils, and the immutability of their decisions, he is answered: "If there were seven churches, then why can not they be the eighth and tenth, and more? Let everyone believe as his conscience. I want in my state all the pontificate of his rite ". Monks, he definitely did not like, calling them parasites and hypocrites.
The new king made a fresh perspective not only in the stiff palace ceremony, but also in politics. Faced in Poland's talk about the universal Christian campaign against the Turks, . referred to in the whole of Europe, . without taking, . however, . nothing, . Dmitry wanted to bring this idea to execution, . especially since it dealt with Russian rather, . than other people, . first, . the spiritual kinship with the enslaved Greeks, . secondly, . adjacent to the Crimean predators,
. Since the arrival in Moscow, he left no intention to fight the Turks and Tatars. At Cannon yard shed new guns, mortars, rifles. Dmitry often went there, he experienced the new guns, shooting them with remarkable precision, he taught military men in the sample proceeded to dig fortifications, climbed into the crowd on the ramparts, despite the fact that sometimes it is pushed, knock down and crushed.
The war with Turkey, encouraged by Dmitry maintain friendly relations with the Pope, but he would not yield to the entreaties of the pope and the church compound in their letters artfully skirted the issue. In the extant letters of Dmitry no hint of his previous promises about Catholicism in the Russian land. He talked with the Pope for an alliance against the Turks, and soon the Jesuits completely disillusioned about his brilliant hopes. After providing Catholics the freedom of conscience in his country, Dmitry likewise gave it to Protestants of all persuasions. It was clear that he did not think the Jesuits fulfill those promises, which he involuntarily gave, as in Poland (although, of course, that at heart he was wholly in favor of the connection of churches, but not because of religious and pragmatic purposes). Just as little is he was forced to carry out its promise to pay Poland and Seversk Smolensk region. Polish Ambassador Korvin-Korwin Gosiewski Dmitry bluntly declared that the return of the Russian lands utterly impossible. He refused to require Sigismund Turns churches and enter the Roman Catholic clergy, especially the Jesuits to the detriment of the Orthodox faith.
Dmitriy like a fun life and fun. He did not like was the old palace, with its grim memories. He ordered to build for ourselves and future wife, two wooden palace. His own palace was small, although high, and contained only four rooms with a huge entrance hall, covered with cabinets with silver utensils. The rooms were covered with Persian fabrics, windows hung zolototkanymi curtains, tile stoves with silver bars and ceilings differed excellent carved work, and the floor was covered with rich Persian carpets. During dinner Dmitry was music that was not accepted under the former kings. Generally Dmitry often said that he wished that all around fun. But contemporaries say that the king was too complacent susceptible to women: seduced knights' wives, daughters and even the young nuns. Godunov's daughter Xenia was his first mistress, and he seems to be quite sought to conceal. On this regard, known not only in Moscow but also in Poland, and Mni, in his letters had hinted that he indecently carry daughter in Russia, while Dmitry kept a mistress. Only then Dmitri Xenia sent to a convent, where, according to some accounts, she gave birth to son.
Fulfilling a promise to marry Marina, Dmitry sent to Krakow Ambassador Vlaseva deacon Athanasius, who represented his sovereign and 12 November made him the act of betrothal in the presence of King Sigismund. Dmitry persistently called the bride in Moscow, but future tests long delayed departure, waiting as the fate of his protege. In Poland, came to conflicting rumors about the new emperor. On the one hand saying that the people he loves and caresses, and on the other - that does not trust him completely and suspects in the impersonation. Both were true. Almost from the first day in the capital went grumbling discontent. Said, . that the king loves foreigners, . eating and drinking with them, . not observe the fast, . walks in alien dress, . music started, . wants to take away from the monasteries property, . spends aimlessly treasury, . Initiating a war with the Turks, . irritates Swedes in favor of Sigismund and intends to marry a filthy Poles,
. At the head of the discontented was a prince SHUISKI. They were joined by Prince Vasily Golitsyn, Prince Kurakin, Michael Tatishchev and some of the spiritual dignitaries. Especially hated Tsar of Kazan, the Metropolitan and Bishop of Kolomna Germogen Joseph, passionate reformers of all the foreign. Supporters Shuyskiy spread discontent among the musketeers, and in January 1606 amounted to a plan to assassinate the king. Murderer volunteered to be the same Sherefadinov, which together with Molchanov killed Fyodor Borisovich Godunov with mother. January 8, they passed it to the palace, but only raised a fuss. Sheferdinov escaped and disappeared. Seven musketeers seized, and they obey. Then Dmitry summoned all the musketeers to the porch and said: "I am very sorry for you - you are rude and not in. You love. Why you zavodite Troubles? Poor of our land and so suffers. What do you want to bring it to the final ruin? 3a what you're looking for me to kill? What you can accuse me? You write: I am not a true Dmitry! Expose me and then you are free to deprive me of life! My mother and boyars in the witnesses. I have my life put in danger not because of its elevation, and then to save the people, fallen into extreme poverty and slavery under the yoke of infamous traitors ... Speak directly, speak freely: for that you do not fall in love? ". The crowd burst into tears, fell on his knees and said: "King-Emperor, have mercy, we do not know. Show us those that we stipulate ". Then Basmanov on royal orders led the seven confessed, and Dmitri said: "Here, they obey and say that you are all my hurt to think". With these words he left the palace, and the archers tore criminals to tatters. The Czar himself is not executed anyone, but people are more strictly supreme authority was ready to punish his enemies. "Then, - says a contemporary, - just give someone a bogus king, and he lost: if he were a monk or layman - is killed or drown".
April 24, 1606 in Moscow Mnishek finally arrived with his daughter. With it came a few noble lords with a crowd of all servants and gentry. All guests were more than two thousand people. Began sumptuous dinners, balls and festivals. At some gifts Marina and Dmitri Poles have spent huge sums. May 8 Marina was first crowned queen, but Pat accomplished wedding. King in an ecstasy of love, seemed to have forgotten everything and only indulged in pleasure, danced, not yielding to the Poles in agility and irritated so prim Russian. But by the originality of his sovereign, they have become accustomed. Much more aroused indignation of the behavior of Poles who came. Among them were many Hajduk-malorossiyan, people violent and irrepressible. In a drunken orgy, they threw themselves on the women on the streets, broke even in the house where the hostess or notice a beautiful daughter. Marina also did not like Russian as their Western dress, and that remained Catholic.
All of this together - an influx of riotous strangers on the streets of Moscow and disdain for orthodoxy, show the queen, as well as many ridiculous rumors, vigorously carried by the king's enemies, has caused excitement and unrest among the Muscovites. This and decided to take advantage of the conspirators. But now they were not confident in the support of the people and chose 'to achieve its goal of direct path of deception. In the night between Tuesday and Wednesday from 13 to 14 May SHUISKI gathered unto him the conspirators, among whom were servicemen and sales people, angry behavior of Poles. We decided first to note the house in which there are Poles, and early in the morning on Saturday to hit the alarm and shout to the people, as if the Poles want to kill the king and the duma kill people: people rushed to beat the Poles, and the conspirators put an end to the king. On Thursday, May 15th some Russian Basmanova was told about the plot. Basmanov reported to the king. "I do not want to hear, - said Dmitry - I can not tolerate whistleblowers and will punish them themselves". King continued to have fun, to Sunday were preparing a big celebration. Royal wooden house built by Dmitri, and the palace hedged forest for illumination. On Friday, May 16 the Germans gave Dmitri written izvet that exists in the capital of treason and should be as soon as possible to take action. Dmitri said: "It's all nonsense, I do not want to read this". And Mnishek and Basmanov advised not to ignore warnings. Dmitri did not believe anything in the evening and guests convened in its new, beautifully decorated palace. Sounded forty musicians, dancing, the king was particularly merry, dance and have fun. Meanwhile Shuya named king ordered out of hundreds of German halberdiers had kept the usual guard around the palace, off seventy people and left only thirty. After the ball went to Dmitri's wife in her newly built and still unfinished palace, coupled with the royal palace, transitions, and in the passage of the royal palace is home to several man servants and musicians.
At dawn Shujskij ordered to open prisons, released offenders and give them axes and swords. As soon as the sun started to rise, hit the alarm on Ilyinke, then all other Moscow churches are also to call, not knowing what was going. Top leaders of the conspiracy - Shuiskys, Golitsyn, Tatishchev horseback rode into Red Square, accompanied by a crowd of about two hundred people. People, . hearing the alarm, . ran from all sides, . Shuya and shouted: "Lithuania is going to kill the king and kill the boyars! Go beat Lithuania!" People with furious cries fell on Poles, . many with the idea, . in fact, protect the king, . others - out of hatred for the Poles for the waywardness, . third - just a passion for plunder,
. SHUISKI, freed from such a cunning folk crowd, accompanied by his entourage of some of the conspirators entered the Kremlin through the Spassky Gate, in one hand a cross, the other a sword. On reaching the Uspensky Cathedral, he descended from his horse, kissed the image of the Virgin of Vladimir and said to those around: "In the name of God, go to the evil heretic". The crowd marched to the palace.
King was awakened by an alarm bell. Dmitri ran to his palace, and met there by Dmitry Shuya, who told him that the city fire. Dmitry wanted to return to his wife to comfort her, and then go to the fire, when suddenly a frantic cries were heard near the palace. Basmanov opened the window and asked: "What do you want?" What alarm? " He replied: "Give us your thief, then talk to us". - "Goodness, the emperor, - said Basmanov king - did not believe me, but the whole of Moscow gathered on you".
Halberdier have been at the entrance, but it gave a few shots. They saw that nothing could be done, and missed the crowd. Dmitry snatched one of them, halberd, stepped to the door and shouted: "Get out!" I will not, Boris! " Basmanov king stepped forward, went down and tried to persuade the boyars, but Tatishchev stabbed him in the heart. Dmitry locked the door. The conspirators were to break it. Then Dmitri threw halberd and ran for transitions in a small palace, but the door was not: all the doors were locked. He looked out the window, he saw in the distance musketeers and decided to jump out the window to go down the woods, prepared for illumination, but slipped and fell from a height of 15 fathoms on Zhitnii courtyard, sprained his ankle and broke his chest. Archers holding the guard ran up to him, doused with water and placed on a stone foundation. Borisova broken homes. Dmitri came to his senses and begged musketeers, so they took his side, promising them a reward women and the estates of traitors, the boyars. Sagittarians have made it back to the palace, already devastated and robbed. When the plotters tried to take away the wounded, archers began firing their guns. Then the conspirators cried: "Come to the Musketeers District, destroy their wives and children, if they do not want us to issue a renegade rogue and trickster". Archers answered: "Let us ask the queen: If she says that she did not son of God it is free". Boyars agreed. Pending a response from Martha conspirators did not want to stay at rest and with curses and beating Dmitry asked: "Who are you? Who is your father?" Where are you from? " He replied: "You all know that I am your king, the son of Ivan. Ask about me or my mother bring me to the place of execution, and give an explanation ". Here was Prince Ivan Golitsyn and said that he was the Queen Martha, asked: she said that her son was killed in
Uglich, and this is an impostor, and that Naked confirm the words of Martha. Then everywhere there were cries of: "Beat him!" Cut him! " Jumped out of the crowd son Gregory Boyarsky Valuev and shot Dmitry, . saying: "As interpreted with a heretic: here I bless the Polish whistler!" Other dorubili accident and threw his body from the porch on the body Basmanova,
. The mob, having mastered the corpses of a section of their naked, dragged through the Spassky Gate on Red Square. Having caught up with the Ascension Monastery, the crowd stopped and asked for Martha: "Is this your son?" And she said, cryptically: "You should have asked me before. Now, he is, he is certainly not mine! "Body of slain king put on the Red Square on a little table. At his feet, dragged the body Basmanova. On chest dead Dmitri put a mask, a pipe stuck in his mouth. In continuation dvuhdney Muscovites mocked his body. Then Basmanova buried at the church of St. Nicholas Wet and Dmitri - the wretched of the cemetery gates Serpukhovskiye. However, various rumors went: they said that the severe frosts are the magic defrocked that over his grave made wonders. Then his body dug up and burned in the boiler and mixing the ashes with gunpowder, shot from a cannon in the direction whence it came.
All the monarchs of the world. Russia. 600 brief biographies. Konstantin Ryzhov. Moscow, 1999. * According to conventional wisdom, under the name "Prince Dmitry" hiding fugitive Chudovsky monk ( "defrocked") Yuri (in monasticism - Gregory) Otrepyev.
Dmitry Ivanovich (1582, Moscow - 1591, Uglich) - Prince. Son of Ivan IV Vasilyevich the Terrible and Maria Nude. In 1584 D. mother received an inheritance g. Uglich and was sent there, that was actually referring to a dangerous rival in the struggle for power. May 15, 1591 while playing with a knife received a mortal wound in the throat. There are three versions of what happened: 1. Epileptic D. tattooed on the knife during the attack (this point of view expressed Stamp. Pogodin, SF. Platonov, VK. Klein et al) 2. D. was assassinated on the orders of Boris Godunov (NM thought so. Karamzin, SM. Solovyov V.O. Klyuchevskii etc.) 3. D. tried to kill him, but he was saved (this feature allowed KN. Bestuzhev-Ryumin I.D. Belyaev, etc.). The latter version was the least likely reason for the appearance of impostors Falsdmitry 1 and False Dmitri II.