MICHAEL Vsevolodich( Prince of Chernigov)
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Biography MICHAEL Vsevolodich
Michael Vsevolodich (? -1246) - Prince of Chernigov., Son of Chernigov:, and then several cues. kn. Vsevolod Svyatoslavich Red. In the 20-40-ies. XIII in. actively involved in policy. Life South. and the North-East. Russia. In 1223 almost died in the Battle of Kalka, where he was murdered by his uncle Mstislav Svyatoslavich, resulting in Michael Vsevolodich was on Chernigov. table. Ok. 1224 he was invited to reign in Novgorod Velikiy. There he spent several months and again went to Chernihiv. In 1229 - again a short time in Novgorod, and then returned to Chernigov. In 1234 Mikhail Vladimirovich Izyaslav Vsevolodich supported in his fight with Vladimir Rurik, which resulted eventually in great strife, during which he helped Izyaslav capture Kiev, while he sat in Galicia, expelling Daniel Romanovich. Due to the fact that his allies could not stay in Kiev, Mikhail Vsevolodich went (1236) with Polovtsy in Kiev, where he was sitting Jaroslav Vsevolodich, drove him out, sat down there to rule, and in Galicia put his son Rostislav. Soon Jaroslav robbed him Kiev, and Michael had to fight long Vsevolodich. fight for Kiev. land. In 1238 he again took over Kiev and stayed there to reign. He managed to take away from Daniel Peremyshl'skii parish. After the defeat of the Tatar-Mongols Chernihiv. and Pereyaslav. land (in the late. 1239) refused to recognize the power of the Tatars, who together with his old enemy, Yaroslav, who became lead. kn. Vlad. (1238), moved troops to Kiev and drove Michael Vsevolodich flee to Hungary, and thence to Poland. Having received no support from there the family, he was forced to confess to others. your enemy, Daniel, who took Michael Vsevolodich host. After tat. invasions (1240) returned to Kiev, but, after learning of the capture of Kiev the Tartars, and his son fled to Poland. Ok. 1241 Michael returned to Russia and settled near Kiev, on the island. In 1245 went to Buta Khan in Saray, hoping to get from him Chernigov principality, but was killed for refusing to perform a pagan rite of purification by fire. Canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church.
To use material from the book.:
Boguslavsky, VV Burmina VV. Russia Rurik. Illustrated historical dictionary
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. Life: 1179 - 1246h
. Parents: Vsevolod Svyatoslavich Chermnykh (1215 +), Anastasia, daughter of Casimir of Poland;
. Children:? =>
. Rostislav (1249), Prince
Wife - the daughter of Bela, King of Hungary =>
Agrippina, wife Leshika Black, Duke of Poland;
Roman Bryansk (after 1288h), the first Bryansk Prince (1246-1288), Prince. Chernigov (1263-1288);
During his princely residence was moved from devastated by the Mongol-Tatar invasion in Chernigov in Bryansk. In 1263 Roman won a brilliant victory over the Lithuanians and conquered them Chernigov, in 1274 again went against the Lithuanians, and in 1285 attacked and Smolensk, burned their suburbs, Monaco could conquer; There is news that Roman was killed in the Horde.
. In 1305, his successor, was defeated by Gediminas, capturing Bryansk
Oleg (? -1290 Or 1307 +), some time after the death of his father was a prince of the Bryansk and Chernigov;
Then Peter built a monastery there and took monastic san (in baptism Leontius, in the monastery Basil). Monk, Memory in the Orthodox Church on September 20 (3 October);
Olga, the wife of Vladimir Vasilkovich, grandson of Roman Galitsky;
Simeon (?) =>
Roman Prince. Novosilsky =>
Semen (XIV century.) Kn. Odoyevski;
Mstislav (1220-1280), Prince. Karachevskij;
Received from his father in Karachi and the land between the Oka and Desna, and perhaps, Zvenigorod, and Eletskii, princely birth who have made themselves from him. Mstislav participated in the campaign of Daniel Galitsky to the Lithuanians in the years 1248-1249.
Andrew (1339 +);
Titus (?) =>
Svyatoslav (?) =>
Yuri (?), Kn. Mosalskiy =>
Basil (XV cent.)
John (?), Kn. Kozelskii;
George (?), Kn. Torussky, Chernigov;
. Vsevolod (?) =>
. Andrew firecracker-Mezetsky (1261) =>
. Constantine (?), Prince Obolensky => (presumably)
. John (?);
. Andrei (?) =>
. John Dolgorukov (XV cent.)
. Basil Shcherbatov (XV cent.)
. Maria (?), Wife of Basil of Rostov;
. Key moments
. In the 20's of the XIII century
. several times was prince of Novgorod, Prince of Chernigov (1223-1238), in 1234g. took Galich. Prince of Kiev (1238-1239).
In 1239, alarmed by rumors of the Tartars, fled to Hungary, then to Poland in 1241 he returned to Russia, he lived near Kiev, and Chernigov.
By order of the khan of the dignitaries and copied the people went to the Horde and there was martyred for non-Tatars Tatar pagan customs (20 September 1246), named among the saints.
* * *
In 1223 pious Prince Michael was a member of the Congress of the Russian princes in Kiev, the decisive question of assistance Polovtsy against advancing hordes of Tatar. In 1223 after the death in battle on the Kalka his uncle, Mstislav of Chernigov, Saint Michael was the prince of Chernigov. In 1225 he was invited to the Principality of Novgorod. His justice and mercy and firmness of the Board, he earned the love and respect for the ancient Novgorod. Particularly important for the people of Novgorod was the fact that Michael voknyazhenie meant reconciliation with Novgorod, Grand Duke Vladimir Vsevolodovich, whose wife, Princess Agafya, was the sister of Prince Michael.
But Michael did not last long reigned in Novgorod. Soon he returned to his native Chernihiv. At the persuasion and request to stay the prince of Novgorod replied that Chernigov and Novgorod must be related lands and their inhabitants - brothers, and he will strengthen the bonds of friendship, these cities.
Pious Prince zealously engaged in the modernization of their inheritance. But it was hard to him in a troubled time. His activities caused concern of Prince Oleg of Kursk, and among the princes in 1227 nearly broke feud - to reconcile the Kiev Metropolitan Kirill (1224 - 1233).
There was a hard time. In 1238 the Tatars devastated the Ryazan, Suzdal, Vladimir. In 1239 they moved to southern Russia, devastated the left bank of the Dnieper, the land Chernigov and Pereyaslav. In autumn 1240 the Mongols rushed to Kiev. Khan's ambassadors invited to Kiev to voluntarily surrender, but the pious Prince did not negotiate with them. Prince Michael immediately went to Hungary, to encourage the Hungarian king Bela joint efforts to organize resistance to the common enemy. Saint Michael tried to raise against the Mongols, and Poland, and Germanic Emperor. But the time for the joint resistance was lost: Russia was defeated, later came the turn of Hungary and Poland. Having received no support, pious Prince Michael returned to Kiev and destroyed some time he lived not far from the city on the island, and then moved to Chernigov.
The prince did not lose hope for a possible unification of Christian Europe against the Asian predators. In 1245 at the Cathedral of Lyons in France, attended Saint Michael sent his associate, Metropolitan Peter (Akerovich) calling for a crusade against the pagan Horde. Catholic Europe in the face of its main spiritual leaders, the pope and Germanic emperor, had betrayed the interests of Christianity. Dad was busy at war with the emperor, the Germans also took advantage of the Mongol invasion, to throw himself on Russia.
In these circumstances, the common Christian, ecumenical importance ascetic deed in pagan Horde Orthodox Prince-Martyr of Saint Michael of Chernigov. Soon to Russia were khan ambassadors to conduct a census of the Russian population and to impose a tribute to his. From princes required full obedience to the Tartar Khan, and to rule - his special permit - a label. Then said Prince Michael, that he needed to go to the Horde to confirm the rights to the reign of Khan's label. Seeing the plight of Russia, pious Prince Michael was aware of the need to obey the khan, but as a devout Christian, he knew from his faith to the Gentiles did not recede. From a spiritual father, Bishop John, he received the blessing to go to the Horde, and is there a true confessor of the Name of Christ.
Together with St. Michael the Prince went to the Horde, his faithful friend and companion Boyar Theodore. In the Horde knew about the attempts of Prince Michael to organize action against the Tartars, together with Hungary and other European powers. The enemies have long sought to kill him. When in 1246, pious Prince Michael and Boyar Theodore arrived in Ordu, . they were ordered before, . how to go to the Khan, . pass through the fire fire, . that was ostensibly to cleanse them of evil intentions, . and worship the deified by the Mongols the elements: the sun and fire,
. In response, the priests commanding perform pagan pious Prince said: "The Christian bows only to God, the Creator of the world, and not every creature". Hahn was told about the rebelliousness of the Russian Prince. Batu through its approximate Eldegu handed condition: if not met the requirement of the priests, recalcitrant die in agony. But this was followed by a strong response of St. Prince Michael: "I am ready to bow to the king, as God gave him the fate of the earthly kingdoms, but as a Christian, I can not worship idols". The fate of the courageous Christians was solved. Strengthened with the words of the Lord "who wants to save his life, . lose it, . and whoever loses his life for my sake and the Gospel, . save it ", . holy prince and his loyal lord prepared for a martyr's death, and partakers of the Holy Mysteries, . have the foresight to give them to a spiritual father,
. Tatar executioners seized the righteous prince and the long, brutally beaten, until the earth with blood. Finally, one of the apostates from the faith of Christ, on behalf of Daman, and cut off the head of the holy martyr.
Holy Boyar Theodore, if he fulfills the pagan Tartars were flattering promise princely dignity of the tortured martyr. But it did not shake the holy Theodore - he followed the example of their prince. Following the same brutal tortures he was beheaded. The bodies of holy martyrs were thrown to be devoured by dogs, but the Lord miraculously kept them for several days until the faithful Christians secretly buried them with honor. Later, the power of the holy martyrs were moved to Chernigov.
Ascetic deed Saint Theodore amazed even his torturers. Finding storage in the unshakable faith of the Orthodox Russian people, their willingness to die with joy in Christ, the Tatar khans did not dare to continue to test the patience of God and not demanded from the Russian in the Horde direct execution idol worship
. February 14, 1572, . at the request of King John Vasilyevich the Terrible, . with the blessing of Metropolitan Anthony, . power of the holy martyrs were transferred to Moscow, . the temple, . on their behalf, . there in 1770 they were transferred to the Sretensky Cathedral, . and November 21, 1774 - the Archangel Cathedral of Moscow Kremlin,
Life and Service of St. Michael and St. Theodore of Chernigov were drawn up in the middle of XVI century by the famous ecclesiastical writer, the monk Zinovy Otensky.
"The genus of the righteous shall be blessed" - says the holy psalmist David. This fully came to pass on to Saint Michael. He was the ancestor of many famous names in Russian history. Children and grandchildren to continue the holy Christian ministry Prince Michael. Church canonized his daughter - St. Euphrosyne of Suzdal (commemorated 25 September) and his grandson - the holy righteous Oleg of Bryansk (the memory of September 20).