FEDOR Rostislavich BLACK( From the kind of Smolensk princes)
Comments for FEDOR Rostislavich BLACK
Biography FEDOR Rostislavich BLACK
Parents: Rostislav Mstislavich,? ;
1. Mary, daughter of Basil Vsevolodovicha Yaroslavsky =>
1 daughter, the wife of the Galician prince Davyd Konstantinovich;
2-daughter, wife of Michael Glebovich Belozerskogo;
Michael (who died in 1287 child-1288gg.)
2. Anna, daughter of Meng-Timur (See. genealogy) =>
Michael (1290 +), book. Yaroslavl;
. From him there were princes of Yaroslavl: Molozhskie, Sitskie, Prozorovsky, tubs, etc.;
. Davyd (1321 +) =>
. Basil Terrible (1344 +) =>
. From him there were princes: Mortkiny, Deev, Vekoshkiny, Ohlyabininy, Khvorostinin, Toothed;
. Basil (1380);
. From him there were princes: meerschaum, Troyekurov, Kurbski, Kubensky, Shestunovy =>
. Fedor; =>
. Alexander paunchy (1463 +);
. Dmitry (1434); =>
. John (1426 +);
. From him there were princes: Zasyekin, Shakhovskoi, Shchetinin;
. Michael (1362);
. Constantine craftsman, kn
. Key moments
. Prince Yaroslavl;
. He was deprived of his inheritance of his relatives;
. Was the progenitor of the Smolensk princes of Yaroslavl line;
. In 1239, when the prayers of the Blessed Virgin Mary holy warrior-martyr Mercurius (Comm. 24 November) delivered from Smolensk Batu captivity, the child Theodore was not there: he was taken away and hid for a time of war in a safe place
Older brothers, heirs divided the land of his father, highlighting the youngest - a little lad, Theodore Mozhaisk. Here he spent his childhood here, he studied the Scriptures, church service and a martial art.
In 1260, the holy Prince Theodore married Mary Vasil, daughter of the Holy Prince Basil of Yaroslavl (1249 +) and became the prince of Yaroslavl. They had a son Michael, but soon became a widower Saint Theodore. He spent much time in military labor and marches, his son was brought up by mother-in-law, Princess Xenia.
In 1277 joined by squads of Russian princes, among whom was Saint Theodore, in alliance with the Tatar forces participated in a hike in the Ossetian land and in the capture of "the glorious hail of Tetyakova". The Allied forces won in this war, total victory. Fact, . that since the St. Alexander Nevsky Yaroslav, the khans of the Golden Horde, . seeing unbroken spiritual and military power of Orthodox Russia, . were forced to change their attitude to it, . began to attract Russian princes to the union, . turn to them for military help,
. Russian Orthodox church has used this providential convergence of Christian education for foreigners.
Already in 1261 through the efforts of St. Alexander Nevsky and Metropolitan Kirill III in Sarai, the capital of the Golden Horde, was established by the Diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church. In 1276 Synod of Constantinople, under the chairmanship of Patriarch John Vecchi (1275 - 1282) answered the questions of Russian Saraysk Bishop Theognostus on the order of the baptism of the Tatars and the adoption of Orthodox Christianity among them former Monophysites and Nestorians. In these years, and appeared in the Horde holy Prince Theodore. Differed feat of arms in the Ossetian campaign, he was summoned to a special arrangement Khan Meng-Temir, respectfully refer to orthodox Church, issued the first Khan's label on the integrity of the church Metropolitan Kirill. The chronicle states: "A prince Theodore Rostislavich King Meng-Temir, and the queen his п¦п¦п¦я-п+пT lyubyashe and Russia did not hotyashe pustiti for courage and beauty of his face". Three years spent in St. Theodore Horde. Finally, the king dismissed him with great honor, "and the prince arrived in Yaroslavl. By this time, his wife, Mary, had died in the rules Duchess Xenia with his grandson, Michael. Yaroslavl's not had returned from the Horde Prince: "Do not priyasha it into hail, but Rekosh him:" This degree of Princess Xenia, and we have Prince Michael "".
Saint Theodore was to return to the Horde. Queen, wife of Khan Meng-Temir, "his lyubyashe exceedingly hotyashe for him and his daughter Dachi". Such a marriage would be of great importance for Russia. Khan for a long time did not agree to it, considering the Russian princes with their "ulusnikami" (t. e. vassals, subjects). Give her daughter to a Russian prince, would recognize him the equal dignity. And more importantly: it is meant to recognize the superiority of Khan Orthodoxy, because before the wedding it was necessary that the Tatar princess accepted holy Baptism. Khan went on it, too important for him was an alliance with Russia: "and commanded the princess to Prince Theodore Dachi, and commanded to baptize her before, and the Orthodox faith not commanded to desecrate". So he married the daughter of St. Theodore powerful Khan, betrothed to the baptism of Anna. "The king is highly revered him and ordered him to sit down opposite him, built him a palace, gave the princes and boyars in posluzhenie".
There, in the Horde, and were born at St. Theodore the Black, his sons - the Holy Prince David (1321 +) and the Holy Prince Constantine. The huge influence that the holy Theodore acquired in the Horde, he used to the glory of the Russian land and Russian Church. Orthodoxy is increasingly gaining ground among the Tatars, Horde mastered the Russian customs, manners and piety. Russian merchants, architects, craftsmen carrying Russian culture to the shores of the Don, Volga, Urals and farther up to the Mongolia. Until now, archaeologists find Orthodox icons, crosses, lamps throughout the former Golden Horde, which became part of Russia. Thus began the great missionary movement of the Russian Church in the East, enlightenment light of the gospel truth to all the tribes of the Pacific Ocean. Russian Orthodox princes and their retinues, participating as allies in the Mongol campaigns, learned and mastered the vast expanses of Asia, Siberia and the Far East. In 1330, only thirty years after the death of St Theodore the Black, Chinese annals write about the Russian squads in Beijing.
Saint Theodore lived in Sarai until 1290, when "came to him with news of Russia, from the hail of Yaroslavl, that his first son, Prince Michael reposed". By giving rich gifts to the prince and a great squad, the Khan sent him to Russia. Once again became prince in Yaroslavl, Saint Theodore began earnestly care about their well-maintained and strengthened the city and the Principality. Particular affection he showed to the Holy Transfiguration Monastery. His fame resounded throughout Russia, all the princes were looking for him the friendship and alliance. But most of all he loved his son Alexander Nevsky, Andrei Aleksandrovich, supported him in all his endeavors, when he was Grand Duke of Vladimir, went with him to battle, that he shared the joy of victories and bitter defeats. In 1296 nearly broke a bloody fratricidal war between two groups of princes: on one side were the holy Theodore, and Grand Duke Andrew, on the other - St. Michael of Tver (1318 +) and Saint Daniel of Moscow (1303 +). But the bloodshed was averted. At the Congress of the princes of Vladimir (1296), Bishop Vladimir Simeon and Bishop Saraysk Ismail managed to bring peace to both sides. The fact of participation in the congress of the holy Prince Theodore and Saraysk Hammers Ismail said that the first use all their diplomatic skills and influence in the Horde to help establish peace in the Russian land.
Does not break connection of St. Theodore the Black and his homeland - Smolensk, his reign even though there was not easy. Thus, in 1297 went to St. Theodore of Smolensk campaign to restore their legitimate rights to the Smolensk principality seized by his nephew. But to take the city and become a prince of Smolensk him again, this time was not able.
Shortly after the campaign holy warrior prince was sick. September 18, 1299 'man of God commanded to move it to the Savior-Transfiguration Monastery and took monastic vows.
During the very end of the holy rite Theodore asked to interrupt a religious rite. With the blessing of Abbot, pursuant to the will of the dying, the prince carried into the monastery courtyard, where many have already come together Yaroslavl. "And the prince confessed before all the people, if you have sinned against whom or disliked kept at anyone. And those who have sinned before him and hated him - all blessed and forgiven and all the blame on himself took before God and men ". Only after this humble warrior decided to complete his unusual and laborious way of life taking angelic image.
All night the abbot and the brethren prayed over the holy prince. At two o'clock in the morning began to call for the morning. Directed the Holy Mysteries of Christ, St. Theodore silent monk was lying on his bed. When the monks began the third "Glory" Psalms, he crossed himself and gave heart to the Lord. Type it in the coffin was unusual: "Strange Be mature blazhennago, on his deathbed lezhascha not like a dead, but alive like a suscha. Shone in his face, like the sun, fair haired decorated, pokazuya his spiritual purity and good-natured heart ".
After him, in Yaroslavl rules his son - the holy David. The second of his younger sons, St. Constantine, apparently fell asleep earlier. Church worship of the holy Prince Theodore in the Yaroslavl land began shortly after his death. In 1322 - 1327 years with the blessing and the order of the bishop of Rostov Prokhor in memory of the revered Lord of Saint Theodore was written and decorated with miniatures of the famous Theodore Gospel. Bishop Prohor was first abbot of the Savior-Transfiguration Monastery in Yaroslavl. Perhaps he was personally acquainted with the holy prince could be witnessed his vows of repentance and popular. Historians believe that the best miniatures, sewn in this precious manuscript that belonged to an earlier Gospel, whose owner was the saint Theodore Black, and he brought with him to Yaroslavl as a blessing from his native Smolensk.
March 5, 1463 were found in Yaroslavl relics of St. Prince Theodore and his Chad, David and Constantine. Chronicler, a witness events recorded under this year: "In the city of Yaroslavl in the monastery of the Holy Savior had three great prince, Prince Theodore Rostislavich let his children Davydov and Constantine, on top of land lying. Himself Grand Duke Theodore great was the growth of people, those he had, sons David and Constantine, lay under the sinuses, Zane less than its growth was. Lay as in a single coffin. This feature of the physical appearance of the holy prince so imprinted in the perception of eye-witnesses and contemporaries, gaining him the relics of that entry is entered in Prolozhnye the lives of Prince Theodore and Iconographic originals.
Life of St. Theodore the Black Prince was written shortly after the finding of the relics ieromonahom Yaroslavsky Spassky Monastery Anthony, with the blessing of Metropolitan of Moscow and All Russia, Philip I. Another edition of the Life was written by Andrew Yuriev in Cyril-Belozersky Monastery. Third, the most detailed Life of Saint Theodora entered in the Book of genealogical power-king ", drawn up under Tsar Ivan the Terrible and Metropolitan Makary. Russian people are resigned to the holy prince Theodora spiritual songs, which for centuries sang "beggars perekhozhie". They praised the piety and justice, mercy and charity of the saint, his concern about the construction and decoration of the temples (see: Metropolitan of Yaroslavl and Rostov John (Wendland). Prince Theodore Black. - "Theological Works", Sat. XI, M., 1973 'with. 55 - 77). The complexity of historical fate, the severity of the era, countless enemies - not personal, but the enemies of Russia and the Church - only brighter for us to emphasize the greatness of the holy deed creators Russia.
Material from the site
FROM RUSSIA TO THE ANCIENT EMPIRE ROSSIYSKOY
Sv. FEDOR Rostislavich Black (count. 13)
From the kind of Smolensk Prince. The ancestor of the princes of Yaroslavl (senior branch). Son of Rostislav Mstislavovitch. Kn. Mozhajskij in 1260 - 1297 he. Kn. Yaroslavl in 1261 - 1299 he. Kn. Smolensky in 1280 - 1297 he. J.: 1) with 1261 g. daughter of Prince. Yaroslavl. Basil Vsevolodovich, Prince. Maria, 2) Khan's daughter Nogaya, kn. Anna. + 19 Sept.. 1299 g.
According to the chronicler, after the death of his father, brothers, Hleb and Michael offended Theodora, giving him one Mozhaisk. But Fyodor could improve things a successful marriage. In 1261 the widow of Prince Yaroslavl Basil Vsevolodovicha Duchess Xenia chose Fedora as a husband of his daughter Mary. Dowry for his wife Fedor got Yaroslavl principality. From the first wife of Theodore had a son Michael, in his absence (Theodore left for the Horde), his wife died, mother-in-law and the boyars proclaimed prince of a young Michael and did not let the city of Fedor when he came out of the Horde. Theodore went back to the Horde, where married to Khan's daughter, bore with her sons - Davydov and Constantine - and hearing about the death of his eldest son, Michael, returned to Yaroslavl, where approved, with Khan's help. In 1279, after the death of the brothers, Theodore united under his rule Smolensk and Yaroslavl principality.
In 1292 Fedor along with five other princes went to the Horde to complain about the Grand Prince Dmitry Aleksandrovich. Khan Tokhta heard the complaints of princes, to Russia sent a large army. Dmitry heard this, fled, and Andrey Gorodnensky with Fedor took Vladimir, looted Bogorodicheskuyu church, then took the 14 other cities and devastated the whole land. Then Fedor took Pereyaslavl Zaleski, paternal Dmitry. But soon the brothers Andrew and Dmitry reconciled. Theodore was forced to concede last Pereyaslavl and anger burned this city. In the west, Fedor also failed to retain their power: his nephew from his elder brother, Alexander Glebovich, captured Smolensk. In 1298 Fedor with a large army went to Alexander, a long time stood at Smolensk and fought hard, but failed to take the city and returned to Yaroslavl, without success. Buried in the Yaroslavl Church of St.. Savior.
All the monarchs of the world. Russia. 600 brief biographies. Konstantin Ryzhov. Moscow, 1999.
Fedor Rostislavich Black (? -1298) - Prince Mozhaisk. and Yaroslav. son of resins. kn. Rostislav Mstislavovitch. In 1278 he married the daughter of Yaroslav. kn. Basil Vsevolodich - Mary, unity, the heiress of Yaroslav, Prince Islands. Dissatisfaction with his brothers, who gave him a total Small. kn-va small town Mozhaisk, forced him to live in Yaroslavl, where his mother-in-law, Prince. Xenia, would not yield to his power, become accustomed to it almost AOR years a widow's life. Fedor Rostislavich together with others. Dukes went (1278) to bow to the Horde and the will of the Khan Meng-Timur took part in the campaign against the jars and Alans who lived on the North. Caucasus and did not want to pay tribute to the Tatars. Returning from there with a rich production, Fyodor Rostislavich attracted the attention of Khan and his wife. The latter offered him the hand of his daughter. Yaroslav, Prince did not hesitate to reply that he has a wife already, and he, as a Christian, can not have another. Meanwhile Prince. Xenia return of Fedor Rostislavich home did not let him in Yaroslavl, declaring that there is already a legitimate prince, son of Theodore and Mary Rostislavich - Baby Michael. Even mediation Horde, the Ambassador was unable to persuade the wayward and stubborn princess. Ok. 1280 Fedor Rostislavich widower. Around the same time, he remained unities of the heirs of resins. kn. Rostislav Mstislavovitch, as one after another poumirali all his brothers. Fedor Rostislavich went to the Horde for the label on the resin. reign, and was re-enacted it with great favor. During these years, the Horde has risen Temnik leg, lucky and clever commander and politician. His daughter, in Pravoslav. Baptism fiance Anna, a widow, and gave the prince's wife. Leg designated city for the maintenance of his daughter and son-in. With the permission of the tests and Khan pious prince put several temples in the encampments of the Horde. When the son of Theodore Rostislavich and Mary died, Prince went to Yaroslavl with his wife and 2 sons, David and Constantine, born in the Horde. Living Yaroslavl not want to take them and locked the gate, but Fedor Rostislavich with his pitches. warriors by force of arms has made obedience to his future subjects. He expanded Yaroslavl, swept his earthen wall, built in it a few temples and decorated them. His wife, Anna, built a temple for their money in the name of the Archangel Michael on the bank. Kotorosl. Canonized Russian. Pravoslav. church.