Nikolay Avksent'ev( One of the leaders of the Revolutionary Party)
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Biography Nikolay Avksent'ev
Avksent'ev Nikolay (1878-1943). One of the leaders of the Revolutionary Party. In 1905, Mr.. entered on behalf of the party in St. Petersburg Soviet P. D. and together with other members of its Executive Committee for the St. Petersburg court sentenced Chambers was exiled to Siberia, where in 1907. fled abroad. From 1907 to 1917. - In exile. During the reaction, and the collapse of the party joined formed in 1912. right-wing Social-p. Party, defended the legality and the rejection of terror. Since the beginning of World War II, while living in Paris, took the extreme right position among the SRs, protecting defencism and actively promoting the "volunteering" of Russian emigration. Member of the Central Committee of the Socialist Party, presented by its right wing, defended the legality and the rejection of terror. Exacerbated differences on participation in elections to the Duma IV led to the fact that Avksent'ev, Voronov, etc.. created their own magazine "The initiative". During the First World War - the extreme social-chauvinist. In 1917, Mr.. After the February Revolution - Member of the Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet, . Chairman of the All-Russia Soviet of Peasants' Deputies ( "Council Republic"), . Minister of the Interior in the second coalition government after the October Revolution - one of the organizers of counter-revolutionary action of the cadets in Petrograd,
. Supervised activities of the "Committee to save the country and the Revolution", then - "Union of Revival of Russia". In 1918, Mr.. - Chairman of the Ufa Directory, educated in the east of the country after the overthrow of Soviet power (Vologda, General Boldyrev, Zenzinov, K.-D. Vinogradov Avksentiev). During the coup, the steady-man dictatorship Kolchak, before holding the position of War Minister in the directory created by the government. With the permission of Kolchak went abroad, where, together with Miliukov included in t. called. "Committee member Constituent. Coll. ". Since the end of 1918 - emigrant. Since 30-ies. headed Russian emigre in Paris Masonic Lodge North Star.
Avksent'ev Nikolay (1878, Penza - 1943, New York) - one of the leaders of the Socialist Party, a member of its Central Committee. Nobleman, the son of a lawyer. He studied in Moscow. un-te, but was expelled in 1899 for his leadership political strike. He continued his education in Germany, in un-max Berlin and Leipzig, became a doctor of philosophy. In 1905 as a representative of the SR party came to St. Petersburg. The Board of Workers' Deputies, a guide to-cerned had been arrested for "a change in Russia established the basic laws of governance in a democratic republic, 14 members, among them Avksent'ev, were sentenced to life exile in with. Obdorsk, beyond the Arctic Circle, where Avksent'ev in 1907 he fled abroad. In Paris, directed the publication of J.. Socialist Banner of Labor, headed the initiative group, which demanded an end to terror and turn to legal action. During the war, helped to form volunteer units of the Russian. polit. Emigrants. However, C and D. V. Plekhanov worked in defencist publications. After Feb.. 1917 he returned to Russia, was chairman of the Executive Committee of the All-Russia Soviet of Peasants' Deputies, from July to September - Minister of Internal Affairs of the Provisional Government. Then, led by the Interim Council (Pre-Parliament), tried to consolidate the democratic forces in the face of the Bolshevik revolution and to build the Council's work on the model of Western European parliamentary system, but to no avail. "The Council has conclusively proved its impotence: no unity, . or ability at a critical time to actively and firmly stand on the side of government ", . - Stated Avksent'ev implacable opponent of the Bolsheviks, . Avksent'ev in 1918 was elected chairman of the new "Provisional vseross,
. Government "(Ufa Directory). After the coup AV. Kolchak Avksentiev was arrested and then sent abroad, where he actively collaborated in the emigre press. According M.V. Vishnyak, editor and associate of the party, Avksentiev had a sharp analytical mind, excellent memory, which enabled him to make one of the first attempts to analyze the events pre-October.
Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.
Avksent'ev Nikolay (29 Nov.. 1878, Penza-1943. New York). Genus. a noble family. He studied in Moscow. un-te. Led studench. Union United zemlyachestva, expelled in '1899 for participation in studench. strike. Those who knew Avksentyev, noted his desire to lead already in his youth. In 1900 went to Germany and there completed education, and wrote a dissertation on. Kant and F. Nietzsche, received the title Doctor of Philosophy in Halle (Avksent'ev N., Superman, St. Petersburg, 1906). Followed neonarodnich. views; in the early. 1900-ies. one of the founders and ideologists of the Socialist Party, a member of its Central Committee from 1907. Participant Revolution of 1905 - 1907 (Moscow, then a member, vice-pre. Petersburg. Council RD), was exiled to Obdorsk, fled in 1907, emigrated. In Paris, one of the editors of center, body Socialist Banner of Labor, employee number of journals. As head of the right wing of the party, defended the legality and the rejection of terror. During the 1-st world. War participated in oboronch. editions of the SR "Abroad", "News" and together with the GV. Plekhanov and others. in w. "Call". In Sept.. 1915 Avksent'ev led the meeting in Lausanne, the Mensheviks and SRs to-Roe voted in favor of active participation of workers of Russia in the defense of the country and condemned the strike on Prospect tiyah and transport workers for the war as an act of "th. betrayal "(" Russia and Freedom ", 1915, Sep 10.). Avksent'ev facilitated the establishment of volunteer corps has grown. political refugees.
After the February. Revolution of 1917 returned (in April) in Russia. Was co-opted into the PC AKP, introduced him to the Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet RD. May 3 at the joint meeting of the PC, Cloud. Univ of Northern Region. Bureau faction AKP Petrograd. RD Council made a presentation in a rum-insisted on the involvement of SRs in the coalition. Provisional. pr-ve. At the 1 st All-Russia. Congress KD (4-28 May, Petrograd) Avksent'ev, according to a member of the Central Committee of the AKP N.YA. Bykhov, "rightmost Defencist among the SRs (Bykhovskii H. Ya Vseros. Council KD. 1917, Moscow, 1929,. 50), was elected before. Board Vseros. Council KD.
Party's attitude to the Provisional Government, the Council devoted Avksent'ev report May 29 at the 3 rd Congress of the AKP. He said: "This revolution has participated as vnedumskaya Russia, and Russia ... enfranchised ... and this made the movement even more rapid, more victorious ... This onslaught was a nationwide ... While DOS. strength Revolution of Russia was not the Duma, but rev.-democratic, but by the time the coup was more organized Russia Duma ... Russia vnedumskaya was strong enough ... to determine the scope of operations of the. Prospect Island, but not strong enough to guarantee the org-tion of power ... Provisional. Prospect of more and more lost its credibility ... Just before Sots. org-org-governmental organizations and governmental organizations Revolution began democratic issue - how to reorganize the power to create that as a strong roar. power to-heaven he derived his strength to the trust and support of the wider democracy? ..
The first sentence was this: the transfer of power to the Soviets ... and exhibiting a universal time. Prospect Island, taken within these org-tions. The second sentence ... inclusion at this time. Prospect of known count Socialists ... As argued S.-E-Bolsheviks his proposal? They said: "Roar-tion goes forward, we must develop it, .. if we want to do it quickly, we should transfer power to the Council the RNC". I believe that this point of view in the East. environment, to-ц¦цЁц+ we are experiencing does not hold water ... Democracy is the one moving the force to-heaven we determine all of life's aspirations and sentiments of the country. But ... roar. democracy is not so hard, . k-paradise could guarantee the country against the counter-tion .- Another must go through a long process of self-democracy, . growth of creative, . organizing forces' before she can afford to throw away all others,
. layers, to-rye went with her to the conquest of freedom, and indeed one can remain. In such methods of action, with such tactics, which recommend St. E-Bolsheviks, to-rye said the seizure of power by the Council. We are facing a danger of extremism, of the roar of the rush. creation, to the rye-risk isolate roar. Democracy at risk of discard those layers of rye-go with it, and awaken the counter-revolutionary feeling ... When won roar-tion not fixed, it is risky to create the chasm between the individual forces ... K-swarm may die and the meaning of rus. Revolution of ... In these disputes affect two points of view. One, to-heaven says: "to grasp, what you can, but that hold them back, then we'll see". Dr.. point of view: "caught something that you can keep; each new position initially establishes" ... We have a huge number of middle class, petty bourgeoisie, in this paradise-the seizure of power is thrown into the camp of counter-revolution ...
With talk time. Prospect of?.. "Here's a portfolio, take them.",. Here the question of tactics ... and not the roar. act, to-cerned, as they say the Bolsheviks, "melkoburzh. Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries are afraid ". There is nothing to fear, tk. and no roar. act is not here. Authorities can take, once we are told - take ... If the socialists, if the roar. Dem. org-tion not decide to take all power into their own hands, only for the sake of what should not go with the bourgeoisie, but with big, broad layers of the petty bourgeoisie, with the cross-shaft. which would give time to organize more and more roar. frames that rev.-democracy and the right moment would provide the greatest unity of forces "(" 3rd Congress of the MDP, P., 1917, with. 208-12). The Congress Avksent'ev re-entered the Party Central Committee.
June 6 on behalf of the Board Vseros. Council welcomed the CD 1-st All-Russia. Congress of Soviets of the RNC, noting that grew. roar. Democracy consists of workers, soldiers and working cross-wah, said: "If we really want to base the new revolutionary. creativity strong foundation, we should think oo combining the triple flow unified in their assignments and their goals rus. roar. democracy "(" 1 st Congress of the Soviets ", t. 1,. 161).
During the events of July came to a commission formed by the Provisional. pr-tion, Bureau of the Central Executive Committee and the Board Vseros. Of the CD to the paradise-organized activities to "restore and maintain the roar. order in Petrograd ". July 7 at a joint meeting of the Central Executive Committee and Board Vseros. Council welcomed the CD due to the front of representatives of loyal troops: "You came here for renewal of the order. We know that you do not go to any provocations "(" Roar-tion 1917, t. 3, P. 158-59). July 8 entered into a special commission to-heaven with military. authorizes the disbanding of the roar. units. July 13 п-.пг. Kerensky had requested a joint meeting of Central Executive Committee and Board Vseros. Of the CD to support the convening in Moscow State. meeting. Avksent'ev said: "We can not temporize with the most decided measures, and should definitely dictate their terms ... Enough discussions. It is time for action ... We need to enforce the dictatorship of the roar. democracy "(ibid.. with. 178).
July 24 was formed on 2-e Coalition. Provisional. pr-in, in a rum-Avksent'ev became min. ext. Affairs. The reasons for its entry into pr-in, he said at a meeting of the Board Vseros. Of the CD: "At the moment we need to hold in the consciousness of the masses need to sacrifice - all to save the Revolution of ..." (ibid.,. 215). August 4. Congress opens on the lips. Commissioners and representatives of the lips. societies, to-ing gave the keynote address, in a-swarm, in particular, said: "If org-tion of local authorities should be given to Chapter. attention to strengthening it in the face of commissioners conducting will center. pr-va '(ibid., t. 4,. 17). Speaking on August 12 at the State Conference, . meaning of min-wa seen in the preparation of laws, . concerning self-government ", . in an effort to "legitimize the new society in all forms of its local manifestations, . in the early implementation of this single, . based on the law, . forms of self-government "(" State,
. meeting, with. 18).
Resignation Avksentyev was signed on September 2 that did not prevent him to give full support to the Directorate and to assure partners. the public that "the Socialists were (and are) in the pr-ve on the situation dictate" (cm-Serebryansky 3., from Kerensky to fly, the dictatorship. Essays on the History 1917. M.-L.. 1928,. 18). He rejected VI. Lenin's compromise - "responsible to the Soviets in the Prospect of the SRs and Mensheviks" (Lenin. II, PSS, T. 34,. 135). "SO-tion of power is possible only subject to a broad coalition, not excluding a coalition with the roar. bourgeoisie "- said Avksent'ev, speaking of the Central Executive Committee (" Case of the People, 1917. Sep 7.). Cadet Speech, Sep 7. commended the position Avksentyev, especially emphasizing the "anti-Bolshevism 'speaker.
Avksent'ev actively participated in the All-Russia. Dem. meeting (14-22 sept.): stood in front. Provisional. Council Ros. Republic (Pre-Parliament). October 7. at its 1 st meeting, his speech devoted to the union Prospect Island with representatives of the organized forces Russian. people ", sharply criticized the leftist radicals who are sowing discord (see: Journal of Provisional. Pr-va, 1917, October 8).
Autumn Avksent'ev paid plural. on the preparations for the elections in the inaugural. Coll.: Went to the local org-tion, spoke at rallies, the Soviets sought to use the CD in the fight for the AKP candidates. Everywhere Avksentyev greeted warmly, "rusokudryavogo, zheltoshtibletnogo and yet so" selyanskogo ", as they laughed in the party, he even hired a cab on the street only as" on behalf of the hundred million Russian. Cross-va "(Mstislavsky S., Five Days, Berlin - P-M., 1922,. 147-48). As VM. Chernov Avksentiev was nominated in 5 districts (Kerensky and MA. Spiridonov - in 4, ap. Gotz - 3. E.K. Breshko-Breshkovskaya - 2). Elected to the inaugural. Coll. (the list of SRs Penza izbirat. District).
October 24. at a meeting of the Pre-Parliament was one of the initiators of the resolution ( "transition formula"), condemning the armament. uprising and demanding from the time. Prospect Island immediate adoption of the "Decree on the transfer of lands under the jurisdiction of the Earth. to-ing and supply the Allies to declare conditions of peace and to begin peace talks "(" Speech ", 1917, 25 October). Evening Oct. 24. with FI. Dan Gotz, and in conversation with Kerensky, insisting on the need to implement these measures, Avksentiev emphasized that thus able to wrest from the hands of the Bolsheviks' most powerful weapon of their influence on the masses "(" New Life ", 1917, October 25).
. During October, arm
. Restore. in Petrograd on the night of Oct. 26. participated in the org-ta-tion to save the country and the Revolution of. According to English. Military. Attache gene. A. Knox, who met with Avksentiev as a member of Oct. 26-ta 'he was convinced that the Bolsheviks would hold out "not more than two days" (see: Mintz and. II, History of the Great October Revolution, 2 nd Ed., T. 3, M, 1973,. 113). He was one of the leaders of the Union defense inaugural. Coll. ". In December. was arrested and imprisoned in the Peter and Paul. Fortress, with the help of the Left SRs released.
In March 1918, participated in the creation of the Union of Revival of Russia ", then in the preparation of anti-Soviet intervention of the Czechoslovak Corps. At Ufim. State. meeting in Sept.. elected before. Provisional. Vseros. Prospect Island (Director), after the coup in Omsk (Nov 18). Kolchak was arrested and deported to China. In 1919 arrived in Paris. He played against the decision of 9-th of the Socialist abandon armament. against the Bolsheviks, believed the policy center, headed by Chernov criminal. In 1920-40 was active in decomp. emigre. org-tions issued f. "Current Notes", worked in the DR. publications. In 1940, before the Nazi occupation forces of France, went to New York, let w. "For Freedom".