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Pavel Kiselyov

( State. figure)

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Biography Pavel Kiselyov
KISELYOV Pavel (1788, Moscow - 1872, Paris) - State. figure. Place from an old noble family. He received education at home willows 1805 enlisted. In 1807 in the Horse Guards regiment fought against Napoleon. First, the war of 1812 participated in 26 battles and after Borodino was seconded to the adjutant MA. Miloradovich. In 1814 K. was appointed adjutant of Alexander 1, accompanied him to the Congress of Vienna and became a trusted man of the king. Intelligent, ambitious, charming K. was the soul of society and communicated with F.V. Rostopchina, NM. Karamzin, was friends cA. I. Turgenev, P.A. Viazemsky; with K. often met A. S. Pushkin

I am happy to sit his neighbor,
Before the night glad to hear it;
But he was a courtier: a promise
He is not worth anything.

In 1819, K. was appointed Chief of Staff, 2 Army in Tulchin, under his leadership were prominent Decembrists PI. Pestel, A.P. Yushnevsky and others, whose ideas about the need state. changes to. shared, but not thinking about violent acts and, perhaps, not knowing about the secret society. During the investigation of the Decembrists to. able to prove his innocence. In the Russian-Turkish war of 1828 - 1829 held positions of command, displaying the courage and diligence. After the conclusion of peace to. was appointed plenipotentiary representative of Russia in Moldavia and Wallachia, concentrated in the hands of military and civilian power. Trying to consolidate Ross. influence K. began ordering system management, finance, of the peasants and others, seeking, according to. V. Nesselrode, "to impose a certain way people of all classes of benevolence correct administration". In 1834, K. returned to Russia with a reputation as an honest and energetic reformer. A.S. Pushkin wrote about it in his diary: "He may, the most remarkable people of our state". At the end of 1834 to. was introduced in the State. Board i'zachislen in the Department of State. economy; in 1835 became a member of the Secret Committee, and in 1836 he was asked to lead V Branch "His Majesty's own office, after which he became a major figure in the decision of the peasant question. A committed opponent of serfdom, K. believed that freedom should be introduced gradually, so that abolished slavery itself, and without disruption of the State ". Expansion of the peasant land use, relief of gravity of feudal obligations, the introduction of agronomic and cultural and service improvements, according to him, demanded of good administration. To this end, in 1837 established the Ministry of State. assets to the K-Roe. head and began to reform management of state. peasants. Similarly to regulate the rights and duties of officials and farmers to. expected to influence the financial and economic issues. Streamline administrative management, creating a parochial uch-я+п¦, TN. "Kiselevsky" schools, K. strengthened expensive bureaucracy. The reforms met with resistance from the feudal landlords for fear of intensifying the struggle of the serfs of the transition to a state-owned agency, and had seen further reforms threaten the existence of serfdom. The attempts of administrative pressure (requiring the best land to sow potatoes, the introduction of public plowing, etc.) were perceived by peasants as the beginning of official barshchina and led to increased unrest. Discontent with the reforms of various sectors of society was the reason for rejection of the abolition of serfdom, Nikolai 1. In 1839, K. was granted the title of count, in 1841 on the occasion of the completion of the reform - the Order of St. Andrew. Some thoughts to. applied in the development of the peasant reform February 19, 1861. In 1856 - 1862 K. rus was. Ambassador in Paris. After retiring in retirement, he lived in Switzerland and France. Buried in the Donskoy Monastery in Moscow.

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