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Konovnitsyn Pyotr

( Major General)

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Biography Konovnitsyn Pyotr
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Konovnitsyn Pyotr Petrovich (1767-1822) - from 1785. soldiering. From 1796, Mr.. Major General. Since 1798. Retired. In 1810-1811 he. commanded a division, protecting the Baltic coast. In the Patriotic War of 1812. Lieutenant General, Chief of the 3rd Infantry Division. In foreign campaign commanded the Grenadier Corps. Love and respect soldiers. From 1814, Mr.. War Minister. Since 1817, Mr.. Infantry General. Since 1819, Mr.. Head of military schools and director of the Lyceum of Tsarskoe Selo. Graf (1819). Member of the State Council (1819).

Danilov AA. Background material on the history of Russia IX - XIX centuries.

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Pyotr Petrovich Konovnitsyn (1764-1822) General of Infantry. On the remarkable combat generals Peter Konovnitsyn official historians have written little, and it had its own reasons: his family was connected with the Decembrist movement. Two sons of Count Konovnitsyn for belonging to the "rebels" had been demoted to the ranks, and his daughter was married to the Decembrist M. Naryshkin and followed him to Siberia. Noble ethos Konovnitsyn able to guess Leo Tolstoy, depicting the image of the immediate assistant Kutuzov in the novel "War and Peace". Extremely brave and reckless for military affairs, Peter Petrovich at the same time showed himself as a brilliant staff officer, extremely accurate, diligent and punctual. Contemporaries rated him as "an unusual type of Russian nature."

Peter was born in Konovnitsyn Slobodsko-Ukrainian (later - Kharkiv) province. He was descended from an ancient noble family, his distant descendants served in Novgorod, and the father of Catherine II was the St. Petersburg, Arkhangelsk and Olonets Governor-General. Since childhood Konovnitsyn was recorded in the artillery and engineer cadet corps, but the education and training received at home. In 1785, Mr.. Fighting baptism he received in the Russian-Swedish war of 1788 - 1790 he. in the fighting in Finland. In 1791, Mr.. Konovnitsyn with the assistance of his father's direction has made it into southern GA Potemkin's army, which fought a war with Turkey. Pyotr Petrovich Potemkin aide, but the hostilities did not have time to attend, as soon took place in Iasi conclusion of peace. In Iasi he first met with Kutuzov. After the Turkish War with the rank of lieutenant commander Konovnitsyn Starooskol'skii musketeer regiment, participated in military actions against the Polish Confederates, was awarded the rank of colonel and the Order of St. George's 4-th degree. In 30 years, received the cherished for all officers of the Order of George, Peter Petrovich, by his own admission, felt himself "the happiest of mortals."

. In 1797 - 1798 gg., Under Paul 1, at him, as a working officer, initially showered honors: Konovnitsyn became a Major General, Chief of the Kiev Grenadier Regiment, then Uglich musketeer regiment
. But soon he, like many other generals, unbalanced emperor dismissed. Eight years Pyotr Petrovich spent alone in his small estate Kiyarovo Petersburg province, where he focused on reading and science.

. Since the beginning of the war between Russia and Prussia against Napoleon (1806), he arrived in St. Petersburg, regained their former acquaintance, and soon, with the approval of Alexander 1 was elected chief of the militia Zemsky
. Formation and direction of the theater of war new troops went with his active participation. The emperor restored Konovnitsyn in military service and at the end of 1807, Mr.. enrolled in his retinue of Quartermaster of. Assessing the ability of the diligent quartermaster, Alexander I to the designation of his general duty to FF Buksgevdenu, originally headed a Russian army in the war with Sweden 1808 - 1809 he. The primary objective was to ensure the army Konovnitsyn all the necessary material means. But, using their rights, he never missed an opportunity to personally command at the right time composite detachment. For active participation in the capture Svartgolma and Sveaborg Konovnitsyn was granted the rank. Lieutenant-General. In June, 1808. He, like the Russian generals of Peter I, took over command of a naval battle - headed rowing fleet to repel an attack 12 Swedish gunboats to the cape of the island Runsalo.

In 1809, Mr.. Konovnitsyn commanded the 3rd Infantry Division, repulsed a landing at a Swedish ц┘bo (Turku), awarded the Order of St. George the 3rd degree. After the war, in connection with Russia's participation in the continental blockade of England and limiting the actions of its fleet, Pyotr Petrovich with his division guarded the shores of the Baltic Sea, brought division among the best for combat training.

. At the beginning of the war of 1812, Mr.
. 3rd Division Konovnitsyn joined the 1-st Western Army M.Barklaya de Tolly. July 14 under the island joined the division in the first battle with the French, replacing a tired body, General A. Osterman, she held back a day onslaught of the enemy, providing a retreat of the main forces army. Konovnitsyn wrote home: "I had a whole day Napoleon himself, who wanted to dine in Vitebsk, but missed, and at night, except that on the day. Our fight like lions ". Just as a lion, fought himself Konovnitsyn, awarded for the battle of the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky. August 5, he defended Smolensk, remaining wounded in the ranks, August 6, fought at Lubin. Shortly after leaving Vyazma he was appointed to lead the rearguard of the 1 st and 2 nd Western armies, and, reflecting the attack of Marshal Murat, who were in incessant battles, it provides a departure of Russian troops to Borodino. Awards for these fights he will receive after Borodino.

. On the day of the battle of Borodino Konovnitsyn Division took up defensive positions along the old Smolensk road, but when it had emerged the main direction of attack by Napoleon - against the Russian left flank, the division was hurriedly sent to the aid of Bagration
. Arriving to Bagration flush at 10 o'clock, Konovnitsyn blow knocked out in the bayonets of the French. After Bagration was seriously wounded and carried away from the battlefield, Konovnitsyn led the defense on the left flank. Temporary confusion 2 nd Army lost its commander, has led to the loss of flushes, and Pyotr was forced to withdraw with 300 - 400 meters ago - Cemenivskiy ravine, where, using the height, he organized a strong defense. Arrived to lead 2-Army General of Infantry Dokhturov endorsed all his orders.

. The reflection of recent attacks of the French Pyotr was twice wounded, his uniform was torn by shell fragments, showered him, but the general calmly continued battle
. The day after the battle commander Kutuzov Konovnitsyn appointed commander of the 3rd Corps (instead of a mortally wounded M. Tuchkova). At the military council at Fili Pyotr raised his voice for a new battle for Moscow. Decision-Chief of the abandonment of Moscow, he took, like most other generals, with pain. "From this hair stood on end," - he admitted later.

After the retreat from Moscow, Kutuzov was appointed Konovnitsyn duty General Staff of the Russian army. This appointment was not accidental: Michael Illarionovich, at a total loss after the loss of Moscow, needed a number of well-balanced and strong man. In addition, honest Konovnitsyn how to neutralize the Chief of Staff L. Benningsen and intrigued against Kutuzov. Since that time, Peter Petrovich was the first speaker in chief, pass through all the combat correspondence Kutuzov with his subordinate commanders. General duty complained in a letter: "I'm alive, but tortured by post, and if my paper thing is not irony here, at least to my mind completely and memory diminish.

. Helping to Kutuzov, Konovnitsyn gave all power restoration and strengthening of the army
. In Tarutino camp, he was engaged in receiving and distribution of completions, followed their training and preparation, and slept no more than three or four hours a day. Despite the illness (before Tarutino he was tormented by severe fever) and promise to Kutuzov: do not risk their lives, Peter Petrovich took part in the hot Tarutino battle and nearly died. Under Maloyaroslavets already Kutuzov himself was forced to send his general duty to the 3rd Division to dislodge the French from the city.

. Constant striving Konovnitsyn to fighting for once caused such a reaction Mikhail Illarionovich: "Yes you get away from me and go, . wherever you want! "Vyazma and red Konovnitsyn also personally involved in fierce battles, . Niya giving orders on behalf of the Chief,
. With the capture of Smolensk he returned, as promised, the city was taken from him during the retreat of the Smolensk icon of the Mother of God, hovered over the Russian troops in the battle of Borodino.

. In his role as the general of Konovnitsyn Kutuzov was at all times of persecution of Napoleon's army until the occupation by Russian troops Vilna (Vilnius)
. His combat activity in 1812. was awarded a gold sword decorated with diamonds, the Order of St. Vladimir 2 nd degree, St. Alexander Nevsky, St. George's 2 nd degree and rank of the Adjutant General. In 1813, Mr.. Pyotr commanded the Grenadier Corps, in the battle of Liitzen he was severely wounded in the leg after the treatment he returned to active duty, was in the retinue of Alexander I, flying with the troops. In early 1814, Mr.. Konovnitsyn was put in charge of "country boys"-tutor to the Grand Duke Nicholas and Michael and accompanied them abroad.

In 1815-1819 he. Konovnitsyn was minister of war Russia. This post was then linked to the management of the entire domestic economy Army, and in wasting the country's economy by a series of wars Pyotr did much work for the resettlement of troops and supplies all the necessary. In 1817, Mr.. He made a general of infantry. Since 1819, Mr.. was a member of the State Council, the chief of military educational institutions, senior director of Cadets and other cadet corps. Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum. Was demanding, but caring leader for the students and enjoyed their respect and love. The most recent of his awards were the title of Count and the Order of St. Andrew.

. Distinctive features of the general Konovnitsyn had the courage and willingness to sacrifice, open nature, simplicity and kindness in dealing with others
. He died in 1822, Mr.. after long illness. At his funeral arrived, Grand Duke Nikolai Pavlovich, Alexander I at that time was away. In the presence of many military and civilians sent Funeral Metropolitan Petersburg and Novgorod.

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