Alexander Verkhovsky( From the nobility)
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Biography Alexander Verkhovsky
Verkhovsky, Alexander (November 27, 1886, St. Petersburg, - August 19, 1938). Of the nobility. In 1905, for the liberal-constitutional vzglyatsy expelled from the Corps of Pages and sent a soldier in Manchuria, was the gunner in the field artdivizione, a soldier awarded the George Cross and promoted to officer. In 1905-1908 he served in Helsingfors. In 1911 he graduated from the Academy of General Staff. Since the beginning of 1 st World War on the front in East Prussia. Since 1915 head of security section of Staff 22 Corps on the South-Western Front, July 9 at the headquarters of Army, from December - 7 th Army. Since March 1916, Lieutenant Colonel, Chief of Staff of Army Group, designed to capture Trebizond from the sea. In September - December 1916 in Romania, assistant security section Rumunskoy Russia's representative at the headquarters, arrived in Petrograd, wrote in his diary: "The final victory over Germany is not, and no end in sight ... Only a change of political system could save the army from the new misfortunes, and Russia from the ignominious defeat. Army has lost patience "(" Russia at Calvary. From the diary of a marching 1914-1918 ", Moscow, 1918, C. 63, 64). In early 1917 appointed Chief of Staff Chernomororskoy division, designed for landing on the Turkish coast.
After the February Revolution of 1917 was made at a meeting of officers of the garrison to support the Provisional Government. March 8 wrote: "What can you do when you can not stop the movement?" - Should take the lead and send it so that people-child himself may have caused less harm. Need us, the officers, enter into an alliance with the best part of the masses of soldiers and forward motion so as to defeat the growing anarchist start and maintain the strength of our troops and ships "(ibid.,. 72). With the permission of Black Sea Fleet Commander Admiral AV. Kolchak said soldiers and sailors to join the revolution and the officers secured the inclusion of their representatives in Sevastopol Council RDA, was elected vice-chairman. Developed the "Regulations on the org-tion orders of the fleet, Sevastopol garrison and working in the state. defense workers "- one of the first local regulations on Soldiers. to-max. In the "Regulations" is written: DOS. objectives to-ing are the increased combat power of the army and navy, "in order to bring the war to a victorious end," backed time. Prospect Island, promoting education of the army and navy: to-you have to serve as a "bulwark of the people freedom", stressed that the DOS. order-ing to be approved by unit commanders. Kolchak on March 19 approved the "Regulations" and Verkhovsky went to Petrograd to attend the commission established to review the regulations and statutes in accordance with new law. Delivered with the idea of the urgent creation of the troops to-ing. similar to Sevastopol, a-rye would prevent new antiofitserskie speech, keeping the army to continue the war. Military. State Commission. Duma introduced Verkhovsky leaders of the Petrograd. Council RDA, . to-Eye March 24, he said, . that the project committee will be ready in 2 months, . Meanwhile, the Army could break out civil war: Verkhovsky proposed to introduce a provision to the order of the Supreme Commander-max before, . until the situation will be developed and adopted by the Provisional,
. pr-tion (see: AI Verkhovsky, on a difficult pass, Moscow, 1959,. 217). Petrosovet Board approved the "Regulations" Verkhovsky, published. it in the gas. "Izvestia", on March 28 gave the authority Verchovsky report "Situation" Supreme Commander gene. M.V. Alekseev. March 24 Verkhovskii addressed the Soldiers. Section Petrosovet with the requirement to retain the officers to all military. issues; evening of that day was adopted by the military. min. AI. Guchkov, Verkhovsky endorsed the intention to go to headquarters, March 28-29, where he participated in the discussion of its "Regulations". Despite the objections of AI. Denikin, "Situation" was in DOS. approved, and March 30, Supreme Commander has issued an order? 51 "On the transition to new forms of life", with a rum-announced temporary regulations for org-tion ranks of the army and navy, in DOS. coinciding with the "Regulations" Verkhovsky.
Since April. Sevastopol took part in the work of the workers, Soldiers. and Sailors dep. May 10, wrote: "The people, as a child does not feel that he is breaking all for the sake of freedom, forging himself a new slavery. And its leaders, the leaders of the revolution ... thrown in a lot of the slogans of the International and class struggle. In the dark head commoner International appealed to the fraternization with the Germans, and the class struggle in the fight with the only "bourgeois" at hand - her ... loving home officer "(" Russia Calvary, with. 81-82).
From May 31 to Colonel and command. Mosk. VO (MVO). He proved himself as a supporter of an "order" with the help of repressive measures: in July, under the hands. Verkhovsky were suppressed by force of arms Soldiers. performances in garrisons H. Novgorod, Tver, Vladimir, Lipetsk, Yelets etc.. cities, all of carats, expeditions were sent with the consent of the RNC, and accompanied by their deputies. In early. July wrote: ".. for the month of my work here I was able to establish an agreement decomp. groups so that at the right moment ... We turn, in an offensive against the anarchy united front "(ibid.,. 94).
In the days of washing. State. meeting (12-15 August) warned gene. L.G. Kornilov, a possible speech by his supporters. After delivery of the speech of Kornilov (August 25) received on August 28 a telegram from him: "... orders you to obey me and continue to carry out my orders" 29 August Verkhovskii replied: "The officers ..., . soldiers, . Duma Moscow joined the Provisional Government,
. Is no other answer to give and I can not, tk. oath not change as gloves ". August 29. signed the order on MVO, in a rum-called Kornilov's action as an address "to combat pr-tion and the Russian people", on the whole territory. MVO declares martial. position, and prokornilovski minded officers suspended from command. The order early. 11 th Infantry. reserve brigades ordered "all actions on behalf of a gene. Kornilov considered rebellious "; August 30. appointed to suppress the rebellion 5 shelf with task: Chapter. impact on Mogilev "[there was bet - Authors]; hands-on shock detachment Verkhovsky assumed the. On his orders carried out searches and arrests in Moscow. Department of the Union army and navy officers and kzzach. org-tion. August 30 telegraphed Ataman п-.п°. Kaledin, that the appearance of ca-sel. troops in the MHE will be treated as a "rebellion against the Provisional. Prospect Island "and follow the order" on the complete destruction of all going on armament. rebellion "(Grunt AM, Moscow, 1917: roar-tion and counter-tion, Moscow, 1976,. 208). August 30. п-.пг. Kerensky appointed Verkhovsky military. Minister, Sept. 1. introduced him to the composition of the Directory, giving the rank of Major-General. Sep 7. Verkhovsky, made a presentation on the reorganization of the army and its militancy pednyatii meeting time. pr-va, Sep 8, to the Bureau of the Central Executive Committee, "... the army does not correspond economical. forces in the country ... The distribution of people in it correctly, the rear overwhelmed people, while at the front of the soldiers do not have enough. Army in the first place, decided to reduce by one third ... "(" Russia Calvary. S. 117-18). On the same day at the Soldiers. section Petrograd. Of the RDA explained his actions during the Kornilov revolt, recalled that suppressed speech and soldiers in Tver and H. Novgorod, arrested Bolshevik soldiers, said that the army has a lot of disorder: "No guns and whips, we create a roar. army, and by suggestion wide Soldiers. lot of ideas of law, justice and strict discipline ". Stating that he was against the elective principle in the army, recalled the experience of the Army Conducted. French. Revolution of, "always tolerated defeat at the beginning of the election" (Startsev VI, collapse of the Kerensky government, LA, 1982. 77-78). Speaking at Dem. meeting, presented the same ideas as in the Soldiers. section Petrosovet.
The newly elected Provisional. Prospect Island from 25 Sep. re Military. Minister. Sep 30. Returned from headquarters, wrote in his diary: "We need to figure out how to continue the war, provided that the army does not want to fight and be heard even claim to conclude peace at any cost ... necessary to dissolve the worst, Naib. tired elements, tk. most of the army will not fight, than whatever it threatened the people "(" Russia Calvary, with. 125). With such provisions appeared at meetings of the Central Executive Committee (October 3). And the Pre-Parliament (October 10).. Meeting time. Prospect Island on Oct. 17., discusses measures against the impending insurrection of the Bolsheviks raised the question of his resignation:. "... Bolshevism in the Council of RD, but it does not disperse the forces. I can not give real power ACCESSED. pr-woo and therefore I resign "(" East. Archive ", 1960, No. 5, with. 84), Oct. 19. at a meeting of pr-va repeated request of resignation: "... People do not understand that fighting for what he is forced to bear the hunger, deprivation, to die. In Petrograd itself, no hand can not intercede to protect ACCESSED. Prospect Island, and trains, summon from the front, will move over to the Bolsheviks "(" Russia Calvary, with. 133). October 20. the joint meeting of the Pre-Parliament Defense and Foreign. Cases Verkhovsky, analyzed the state of the army, said: "The fight we can not". The only way he saw that "by immediately raise the question of concluding peace ... The news of the world soon will not hesitate to make the army sanatory beginning, which will enable, based on the most integral part of force to suppress the anarchy on the front and rear. A TK. Finally, most of the world will require considerable time ... You can count on the re-establishment of the combat power of the army, which in turn will positively affect the actual terms of peace "(Startsev VI, Decree. cit., with. 211). Opponents said that peace with annexations in Germany's favor can not be considered as "salvation of the country". Verkhovsky said: "We need to decide what we can afford and that there. If there is no means for a better world, one must conclude that what is possible. Otherwise the situation will only get worse "(ibid.,. 214). The meeting was secret, but on October 21. distorted information about it appeared in the newspaper VP. Burtseva Common Cause. This hastened the resignation Verkhovsky, although it was officially announced that he is two weeks' leave for health reasons. October 22, he went on to. Balaam, where only 29 Oct. learned about the October armed uprising.
. Nov. 3 returned to Petrograd, and together with members of the Central Committee of the SR went to headquarters, where the All-Army committee and leaders of some socialist parties tried to form a "general-socialist government"
. After the failure of the plan withdrew from political activity. Summer of 1918 on charges of preparing speeches SRs was arrested but soon released. Since 1919, the Red Army on the Eastern Front. Since 1921 the Academy of the RKKA. In 1922, a military expert of the Soviet delegation at the Genoa International Conference. Since 1930, Chief of Staff of the North Caucasus IN.
18 July 1931 on charges of anti-Soviet activities of the College of OGPU sentenced to death, it is December 2, 1931 commutation of sentence to 10 years in the camps. September 17, 1934 ahead of schedule released. 19 August 1938 the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR on the same charges, sentenced to capital punishment, executed on the same day. November 28, 1956 reinstated.